Endothelial Dysfunction Evaluated using Photoplethysmography in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes
|Castillo-Martínez Lilia1, Ortiz-Suárez Gerson1, Montañez-Orozco Álvaro1, Orea-Tejeda Arturo1*, Keirns-Davis Candace2, Davila-Radilla Fernando1, Alcala- Davila Efraín1, Kauffman-Ortega Eric1, Infante-Vázquez Oscar3 and Martínez Memije Raúl3|
|1Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición “SZ”, Mexico City, Mexico|
|2Massachusetts General Hospital Interpreter Services, Boston, MA 02114, USA|
|3Instrumentation Department, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología “ICh”, Mexico City, Mexico|
|Corresponding Author :||Orea-Tejeda A
Cardiology Service Coordinator
at Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias “Ismael Cosío Villegas”
Providencia 1218-A 402 Col. del Valle, Benito Juárez, CP 03100 Mexico City Mexico
Tel/Fax: (5255) 55-13-93-84
E-mail: [email protected]
|Received: August 01, 2015; Accepted: August 28, 2015; Published: August 31, 2015|
|Citation: Lilia CM, Gerson OS, Álvaro MO, Arturo OT, Candace KD, et al. (2015) Endothelial Dysfunction Evaluated using Photoplethysmography in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. J Cardiovasc Dis Diagn 3:219.doi:10.4172/2329-9517.1000219|
|Copyright: © 2015 Lilia CM. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.|
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Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) reduces life expectancy by a third, principally because of cardiovascular disease and endothelial dysfunction is considered to be one of the first manifestations of vascular disease. Photoplethysmography is a non-invasive technique to evaluate endothelial dysfunction based on the emission of infra-red light on the skin.
Objective: To evaluate endothelial function by photoplethysmography in patients with type 2 DM without evidence of vascular disease.
Methods: A cross-sectional study of patients with and without DM was undertaken. Endothelial function was evaluated using photoplethysmographic waves taking into consideration the shape of the curve and time of maximum amplitude/total time of the curve (TMA/TT) before and after ischemia induced by arterial obstruction.
Results: In 174 subjects included, a greater basal TMA/TT index was found in diabetics, even after adjusting for age, hypertension, dyslipidemia and hypothyroidism. The percent change in amplitude post-ischemia compared to basal value was diminished in diabetics (p=0.030). Persons with diabetes, with and with not endothelial dysfunction, had comparable HbA1c concentrations; but diabetics with endothelial dysfunction, had lower serum concentration of HDL-C. (p=0.05) Conclusions: More endothelial dysfunction was found in patients with diabetes. While the control of diabetes did not influence endothelial dysfunction, it was associated with HDL cholesterol.