Engineered Nanomaterial Impact in the Liver following Exposure via an Intravenous Route-The Role of Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes and Gene Expression in the Organ
- *Corresponding Author:
- Ali Kermanizadeh
School of Life Sciences
Nanosafety Research Group
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
E-mail: [email protected]
Received Date: November 07, 2012; Accepted Date: December 13, 2012; Published Date: December 17, 2012
Citation: Kermanizadeh A, Brown DM, Hutchison GR, Stone V (2013) Engineered Nanomaterial Impact in the Liver following Exposure via an Intravenous Route– The Role of Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes and Gene Expression in the Organ. J Nanomed Nanotechol 4:157. doi:10.4172/2157-7439.1000157
Copyright: © 2013 Kermanizadeh A, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Abstract Background and methods: Following exposure via a number of routes (inhalation, ingestion or injection), some Nanomaterials (NMs) translocate to secondary tissues, prominently the liver. This study investigated the effects of an array of NMs, varying in their physicochemical characteristics, consisting of two types of Zinc Oxide (ZnO), two Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNT), one silver (Ag) and one titanium dioxide (TiO2) on the liver, following Intravenous (IV) exposure of C57/BL6 mice. The animals were exposed to either a single dose of NM (128 μg/ml–100 μl) or three doses of (64 μg/ml–100 μl), every 24 hr. Animals were dissected 6, 24, 48 and 72 hr after the single IV injection, or 72 hr after the triple injection regime. Results and conclusions: A Myeloperoxidase (MPO) assay was utilised to quantify neutrophil influx into the tissue. However, as MPO is also found in other granulocytes in smaller quantities, the neutrophils in the liver tissue were also labelled, using a specific neutrophil cell surface marker (Ly-6B.2). A wide array of NMs (including ZnO, Ag, TiO2 and MWCNT) induced a neutrophil influx into the liver, as early as 6 hr post IV exposure. However, the neutrophils were only involved in the initial phases of the immune response against the NMs, as the leukocyte numbers had returned to control levels after 48 hr. Finally, analysis of mRNA expression in mice livers showed alterations in levels of C3, IL6, IL10, CXCL2 and ICAM-1.