Enhanced Cue Reactivity to Cocaine Cues in Non-treatment Seeking Cocaine SmokersSuchismita Ray1*, Catherine Hanson2 and Stephen Jose Hanson2
- *Corresponding Author:
- Suchismita Ray
Assistant Research Professor, Center of Alcohol Studies, 607 Allison Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
E-mail: [email protected]
Received date: May 07, 2014; Accepted date: July 18, 2014; Published date: July 22, 2014
Citation: Ray S, Hanson C, Hanson SJ (2014) Enhanced Cue Reactivity to Cocaine Cues in Non-treatment Seeking Cocaine Smokers. J Alcohol Drug Depend 2:169. doi:10.4172/2329-6488.1000169
Copyright: © 2014 Ray S, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Introduction: Cue reactivity is defined as an observable, classically conditioned response to drugs. Chronic cocaine use is associated with enhanced cue reactivity. Our aims were: (1) to evaluate reactivity to cocaine and neutral picture cues in non-treatment seeking chronic cocaine smokers who were abstinent from cocaine use for 72 hours and control participants using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and (2) to assess whether cue reactivity related brain areas were correlated with subjective craving ratings.
Method: fMRI data were collected from non-treatment seeking cocaine-smokers (29-53 yrs.; 15M; 5F) who were abstinent from cocaine smoking for 72 hours, and control participants (25-53 yrs.; 13M; 4F) using a Siemens 3T magnet while they took part in a cue viewing task that included cocaine and neutral cues. Participants also provided craving ratings while they viewed the cues.
Results: Contrasting activation of cocaine smokers to that of controls revealed significantly greater activation in response to cocaine cues in the following brain areas: anterior cingulate gyrus, posterior cingulate gyrus, left insula, right amygdala, left precuneous, and bilateral orbitofrontal cortex, caudate, Para hippocampal gyrus, thalamus, frontal pole, and lingual gyrus. In contrast, when comparing cocaine smokers to controls no significant difference in activation to neutral cues was observed. Increased cue reactivity was not positively correlated with cocaine users’ subjective craving ratings.
Conclusion: Enhanced cue reactivity reflects cocaine users’ increased salience to cocaine cues, and this enhancement may not indicate increased craving for the drug. Results have implications for treatment development. Future studies will examine how these cue reactivity related brain areas are causally related during viewing cocaine cues in cocaine users.