alexa Environmental Factors in Renal Disease: The Contribution of Urinary Tract Infections in Nigerian Renal Disease Burden-Research
ISSN: 2327-5073

Clinical Microbiology: Open Access
Open Access

OMICS International organises 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events every year across USA, Europe & Asia with support from 1000 more scientific Societies and Publishes 700+ Open Access Journals which contains over 50000 eminent personalities, reputed scientists as editorial board members.

Open Access Journals gaining more Readers and Citations

700 Journals and 15,000,000 Readers Each Journal is getting 25,000+ Readers

This Readership is 10 times more when compared to other Subscription Journals (Source: Google Analytics)

Research Article

Environmental Factors in Renal Disease: The Contribution of Urinary Tract Infections in Nigerian Renal Disease Burden-Research

Tobias I Ndubuisi Ezejiofor*

Department of Biotechnology, School of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B 1526, Owerri, Nigeria

*Corresponding Author:
Tobias I Ndubuisi Ezejiofor
Department of Biotechnology
School of Biological Sciences, Federal
University of Technology, P.M.B 1526, Owerri, Nigeria
Tel: +2348036774598
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date: November 18, 2015 Accepted date: February 27, 2016 Published date: March 04, 2016

Citation: Ezejiofor TIN (2016) Environmental Factors in Renal Disease: The Contribution of Urinary Tract Infections in Nigerian Renal Disease Burden-Research. Clin Microbiol 5:237. doi:10.4172/2327-5073.1000237

Copyright: © 2016 Ezejiofor TIN. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.



Background: Asymptomatic and mild nature of urinary tract infections (UTIs) make them underrated, overlooked but dangerous, because they are prelude to most renal diseases. Like asymptomatic UTIs, some renal diseases are symptomless until they have reached advanced stage, making their victims easily vulnerable to complications before actual diagnosis of renal disease may be made. This study was aimed at surveying the environmental factors responsible for the renal disease burden of Nigeria with a particular focus on the contributions of UTIs.
Method: Urine samples from renal disease patients of the University of Nigeria teaching hospital (UNTH), Enugu, Nigeria were analyzed for bacteriuria using standard microbiological procedures.
Results: An overall incidence of 28% bacteriuria was obtained, based on the criterion of significant bacteriuria (> 105 colonies/ml). While fungal yeasts, Candida albicans contributed 30%, various bacterial species jointly accounted for 70% of the entire microbial agents responsible for UTIs among the subjects. Subsequent Gram’s, microscopy and biochemical characterization tests revealed seven bacterial species viz Escherichia coli (29%), Klebsiella spp (22%), Proteus mirabilis (14%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (7%), Streptococcus faecalis (7%), Staphylococcus aureus (7%) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (14%). Gender distribution of the isolates showed that S. aureus was isolated from the males while E. coli, Proteus mirabilis, Streptococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa from the females; Klebsiella spp was isolated from the males (33%) and females (67%) respectively, while S. epidermidis was isolated equally (50%) from both sexes. Adoption of leucocytes’ presence in urine as part of diagnostic criteria revealed significant bacteriuria with significant pyuria (21%), significant pyuria without significant bacteriuria (52%), and significant bacteriuria without significant pyuria (7%), no significant bacteriuria without significant pyuria (20%). Also, urinalyses gave proteinuria (84%), haematuria (45%) and glycosuria (6%).
Conclusions: The study revealed an overall incidence of 28% bacteriuria. Though UTIs by sundry bacterial organisms and fungal Candida albicans made reckonable contributions to the renal disease load of UNTH, Enugu, additional evidence from urinalyses revealing proteinuria, glycosuria and haematuria, etc., suggest that apart from the UTIs, diabetes mellitus and/or urinary schistosomiasis (possibly accounting for the haematuria) are part of the diseases complex defined by yet-to-be identified factors (possibly including chemical entities) in our environment that determine the burden and patterns of renal diseases profile of Nigeria. Further search is thus warranted.


Share This Page

Additional Info

Loading Please wait..
Peer Reviewed Journals
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri, Food, Aqua and Veterinary Science Journals

Dr. Krish

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Clinical and Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals


[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Earth & Environmental Sciences

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science and Health care Journals

Andrea Jason

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics and Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Informatics Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Material Sciences Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Mathematics and Physics Journals

Jim Willison

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

John Behannon

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version