Epstein-Barr Virus, Hygiene, and Multiple Sclerosis in Mexico City
|Massa J1*,Simon KC1,3, Lopez-Ridaura R4 , Rivera-Flores J5 , Silverman-Retana O4 , Corona T5 , Kagan IG6 and Ascherio A1-3|
|1Departments of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA|
|2Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA|
|3Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA|
|4Center for Population Health Research, National Institute of Public Health of Mexico, Cuernavaca, Mexico|
|5National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Mexico City, Mexico|
|6Parasitic Disease Consultants, Georgia, USA|
|Corresponding Author :||Dr. Jennifer Massa
Department of Nutrition
Harvard School of Public Health
665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
E-mail: [email protected]
|Received April 28, 2013; Accepted June 07, 2013; Published June 09, 2013|
|Citation: Massa J, Simon KC, Lopez-Ridaura R, Rivera-Flores J, Silverman- Retana O, et al. (2013) Epstein-Barr Virus, Hygiene, and Multiple Sclerosis in Mexico City. J Neurol Disord 1:119. doi: 10.4172/2329-6895.1000119|
|Copyright: © 2013 Massa J, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.|
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Background/Aims: We studied whether serological antibody titers against Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) were related to multiple sclerosis (MS) risk in Mexico City, a population undergoing an epidemiological transition. Additionally, we explored the association between markers of hygiene and intestinal parasite infection and MS prevalence.
Methods: We conducted a hospital based case-control study in Mexico City; 52 incident MS cases. Childhood and adult hygiene scores were created using information from questionnaires. 51 cases and 51 controls provided blood samples for biomarker analyses.
Results: There was a 3-fold increase in risk of MS with each 1 unit increase in anti-EBNA1 titer (OR 3.02, 95% CI: 1.01-9.02). Increasing childhood and adult hygiene scores were associated with a modestly increased risk of MS (ORchildhood 1.20, 95% CI: 1.04-1.38; ORadult 1.28, 95% CI: 1.04-1.58). We found no association between antibody titer to neither Stronglyloides nor Ascaris and MS risk.
Conclusion: High anti-EBNA1 antibody titers appears to be associated with increased MS risk even in a region where MS had historically low incidence and infectious mononucleosis is rare, providing further support for the postulated role of EBV in MS etiology. We also found moderate support for a role of higher ‘hygiene’ being associated with susceptibility to MS.