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Epstein-Barr Virus, Hygiene, and Multiple Sclerosis in Mexico City | OMICS International | Abstract
ISSN: 2329-6895

Journal of Neurological Disorders
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Research Article

Epstein-Barr Virus, Hygiene, and Multiple Sclerosis in Mexico City

Massa J1*,Simon KC1,3, Lopez-Ridaura R4 , Rivera-Flores J5 , Silverman-Retana O4 , Corona T5 , Kagan IG6 and Ascherio A1-3
1Departments of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA
2Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA
3Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
4Center for Population Health Research, National Institute of Public Health of Mexico, Cuernavaca, Mexico
5National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Mexico City, Mexico
6Parasitic Disease Consultants, Georgia, USA
Corresponding Author : Dr. Jennifer Massa
Department of Nutrition
Harvard School of Public Health
665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
Tel: 617-432-3276
Fax: 617-432-2435
E-mail: [email protected]
Received April 28, 2013; Accepted June 07, 2013; Published June 09, 2013
Citation: Massa J, Simon KC, Lopez-Ridaura R, Rivera-Flores J, Silverman- Retana O, et al. (2013) Epstein-Barr Virus, Hygiene, and Multiple Sclerosis in Mexico City. J Neurol Disord 1:119. doi: 10.4172/2329-6895.1000119
Copyright: © 2013 Massa J, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Background/Aims: We studied whether serological antibody titers against Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) were related to multiple sclerosis (MS) risk in Mexico City, a population undergoing an epidemiological transition. Additionally, we explored the association between markers of hygiene and intestinal parasite infection and MS prevalence.

Methods: We conducted a hospital based case-control study in Mexico City; 52 incident MS cases. Childhood and adult hygiene scores were created using information from questionnaires. 51 cases and 51 controls provided blood samples for biomarker analyses.

Results: There was a 3-fold increase in risk of MS with each 1 unit increase in anti-EBNA1 titer (OR 3.02, 95% CI: 1.01-9.02). Increasing childhood and adult hygiene scores were associated with a modestly increased risk of MS (ORchildhood 1.20, 95% CI: 1.04-1.38; ORadult 1.28, 95% CI: 1.04-1.58). We found no association between antibody titer to neither Stronglyloides nor Ascaris and MS risk.

Conclusion: High anti-EBNA1 antibody titers appears to be associated with increased MS risk even in a region where MS had historically low incidence and infectious mononucleosis is rare, providing further support for the postulated role of EBV in MS etiology. We also found moderate support for a role of higher ‘hygiene’ being associated with susceptibility to MS.


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