Evaluation of Certain Botanical Preparations against African Bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera Hubner (Lepidoptera: noctuidae) and Non Target Organisms in Chickpea, Cicer arietinum L
Nigussie Lulie and Nagappan Raja*
Department of Biology, Faculty of Natural and Computational Sciences, Post Box-196, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia
- *Corresponding Author:
- Nagappan Raja
Department of Biology
Faculty of Natural and Computational Sciences
Post Box-196, University of Gondar
E-mail: [email protected]
Received date: January 04, 2013; Accepted date: January 27, 2013; Published date: February 02, 2013
Citation: Lulie N, Raja N (2013) Evaluation of Certain Botanical Preparations against African Bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera Hubner (Lepidoptera: noctuidae) and Non Target Organisms in Chickpea, Cicer arietinum L. J Biofertil Biopestici 3:130. doi:10.4172/2155-6202.10000130
Copyright: © 2013 Lulie N, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Aqueous extract of individual and mixed form of Azadirachta indica A. Juss seeds kernel and leaves of Milletia ferruginea, Hochst and Croton macrostachyus Hochst was tested against African bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera Hubner. Antifeedant activity of selected plant extract was tested at 1%, 2.5%, 5% and 10% concentration against 4th instar larvae of H. armigera in the laboratory and 5% concentration was tested under field condition. All the tested plant extract showed 100% protection at 5% and 10% concentration. Among the various botanical treatment Neem Seed Kernel Extract (NSKE) and NSKE+BLE (Birbira Leaves Extract) was effective at 2.5% concentration with minimum pod damage. In the field observation among the botanicals, reduction of larval population in the treatment of NSKE, BLE and NSKE+BLE was statistically not significant (p>0.05; LSD). The lowest percentage pod damage (0.45%) was observed in Diazinon 60% EC treated plot followed by NSKE treated plot (3.90%) after second spray. The highest mean yield was obtained from NSKE treated plot (781 g) followed by Diazinon 60% EC treated plot (719.33 g), NSKE+BLE (656.67 g) and BLE treated plot (653.33 g). Five days after second treatment there was a significant difference in the mean number of ants between NSKE+BLE, control and other treatments. The highest mean number of spiders was observed in control plot (3.6) and lowest (0.3) was in plot treated with Diazinon 60% EC. The reduction of lady bird beetle population among the botanicals treated plots was statistically not significant (p>0.05; LSD). The mean number of wasp population was the highest in control plot (3.3) and there was no wasp observed in Diazinon 60% EC treated plot. In conclusion, even though Diazinon 60% EC was found to be effective by considering the interaction of beneficial in the field botanical preparations are much better particularly NSKE and also suitable to spray under rain fed condition to protect the crop by small farming communities.