alexa Evaluation of Groundwater Suitability for Drinking and Irrigation Purposes in Toba Tek Singh District, Pakistan
ISSN: 2168-9768

Irrigation & Drainage Systems Engineering
Open Access

OMICS International organises 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events every year across USA, Europe & Asia with support from 1000 more scientific Societies and Publishes 700+ Open Access Journals which contains over 50000 eminent personalities, reputed scientists as editorial board members.

Open Access Journals gaining more Readers and Citations

700 Journals and 15,000,000 Readers Each Journal is getting 25,000+ Readers

This Readership is 10 times more when compared to other Subscription Journals (Source: Google Analytics)

Research Article

Evaluation of Groundwater Suitability for Drinking and Irrigation Purposes in Toba Tek Singh District, Pakistan

Muhammad Hasan1*, Yanjun Shang1, Gulraiz Akhter2 and Weijun Jin1

Institute of Geology and Geophysics, University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China

*Corresponding Author:
Hasan M
Institute of Geology and Geophysics
University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences
Beijing, China
Tel: +130 513 617 10
Fax: 010-62010846
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: May 03, 2017; Accepted Date: June 16, 2017; Published Date: June 23, 2017

Citation: Hasan M, Shang Y, Akhter G, Jin W (2017) Evaluation of Groundwater Suitability for Drinking and Irrigation Purposes in Toba Tek Singh District, Pakistan. Irrigat Drainage Sys Eng 6: 185. doi: 10.4172/2168-9768.1000185

Copyright: © 2017 Hasan M. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.



Correlating the physicochemical parameters for assessment of the groundwater quality has emerged as a very useful approach for water use. Taking water samples from the Toba Tek Singh District of Pakistan, this study assess the water quality for drinking and irrigation purposes. A sum-total of 72nos. groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for the purpose of different water quality parameters including sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), bicarbonate (HCO- 3), chloride (Cl-), sulphate (SO4 2-), pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS) and total hardness (TH). The results obtained were, then, compared with the standard desirable limits of physicochemical parameters prescribed by World Health Organization (WHO), Pakistan Standards and Quality Control Authority (PSQCA) and Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources (PCRWR) for drinking purposes. In order to classify the groundwater suitability for irrigation purpose, parameters such as sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), percent sodium (PS), permeability index (PI), residual sodium bicarbonate (RSBC), Kelly’s ratio (KR), and magnesium adsorption ratio (MAR) were also calculated on the basis of chemical data. After that, the correlation coefficients between different physicochemical parameters were calculated to identify the highly correlated and interrelated parameters for water quality. Different plots like Piper, Durov, Schoeller and Stiff diagrams were drawn to classify the groundwater ability for different purposes. These several classifications show most of groundwater samples falling within the safe limits and thus suitable for drinking and irrigation purposes, except of a few samples with a caution that it may get worse in the future.

Share This Page

Additional Info

Loading Please wait..
Peer Reviewed Journals
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri, Food, Aqua and Veterinary Science Journals

Dr. Krish

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Clinical and Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals


[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Earth & Environmental Sciences

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science and Health care Journals

Andrea Jason

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics and Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Informatics Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Material Sciences Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Mathematics and Physics Journals

Jim Willison

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

John Behannon

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version