Evaluation of the Craniofacial Morphology of Egyptian Adults Undergoing Orthodontic Treatment
- *Corresponding Author:
- Mohamed Adel
Department of Orthodontics
School of Dentistry, Showa University
Ohta-ku, Tokyo, Japan
E-mail: [email protected]
Received date: April 22, 2016; Accepte date:d May 16, 2016; Published date: May 25, 2016
Citation: Adel M, Yamaguchi T, Nadim M, Tomita D, Hikita Y, et al. (2016) Evaluation of the Craniofacial Morphology of Egyptian Adults Undergoing Orthodontic Treatment. Dentistry 6:379. doi: 10.4172/2161-1122.1000379
Copyright: © 2016 Adel M, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Background: Craniofacial characteristics play an important role in determining the treatment plan for different types of malocclusions. The characteristics of different craniofacial morphologies vary among various populations in different parts of the world. The aim of this study was to identify cephalometric norms in an adult Egyptian population, to compare the values for Egyptian males and females and to descriptively compare the Egyptian norms with the established norms of other populations.
Methods: Lateral cephalometric radiographs of 300 adult Egyptians (82 males, 218 females; 18–55 years) were obtained. The radiographs were traced, and 24 hard-tissue and soft-tissue reference points were localized on the radiographs. Twenty-four angular and seven linear measurements of craniofacial morphology were analyzed with Power Cephalo software (ReazaNet Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan), and the results were compared according to gender and populations considered similar to the Egyptian population.
Results: The results showed that the Egyptians had a tendency toward the skeletal Class II with more retrognathic mandibles and more convex profiles in females (P = 0.03 and 0.016, respectively). In addition, females had a reduced interincisal angle (P = 0.016) and more proclined lower incisors. For the linear dimensions, the males showed a longer anterior cranial base (P = 0.000) as well as greater anterior facial height measurements. The tendency toward the skeletal Class II was reflected in the soft tissue measurements with reduced Z-angle values.
Conclusion: Egyptians have distinct craniofacial measurements that are a useful reference for cephalometric values in the diagnosis and treatment planning of orthodontic patients.