alexa Evaluation of Toxicity of Maura Reduced Graphene Oxide using in vitro Systems
ISSN: 2157-7439

Journal of Nanomedicine & Nanotechnology
Open Access

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Research Article

Evaluation of Toxicity of Maura Reduced Graphene Oxide using in vitro Systems

Reshma S Cherian1#, Sreejith R2#, Syama S1, Sruthi S1, Gayathri V1, Toru Maekawa2, Sakthikumar D2* and Mohanan PV1*

1Toxicology Division, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram 695 012, Kerala, India

2Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo University, Saitama, Kawagoe, Japan

#These authors contributed equally

*Corresponding Author:
Mohanan PV
Toxicology Division, Biomedical Technology Wing
Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology
Thiruvananthapuram 695 012, Kerala, India
Tel: 09446542702
Fax: 91-471-2341814
E-mail: [email protected]

Sakthikumar D
Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre
Toyo University, Saitama, Kawagoe, Japan
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: April 14, 2014; Accepted Date: May 15, 2014; Published Date: May 20, 2014

Citation: Cherian RS, Sreejith R, Syama S, Sruthi S, Gayathri V, et al. (2014) Evaluation of Toxicity of Maura Reduced Graphene Oxide using In vitro Systems. J Nanomed Nanotechnol 5:200. doi:10.4172/2157-7439.1000200

Copyright: © 2014 Cherian RS, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.



The intriguing properties of graphene has paved way for many potential biomedical applications like drug delivery, tissue engineered scaffold, bio sensing and so on. Here, we report the interaction of Maura reduced graphene oxide (MRGO) with the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs), as there is a likelihood of graphene coming in contact with the blood through intentional or accidental exposure. MRGO was synthesized by reducing graphene oxide using Halomonas Maura and autoclaved subsequently to prevent microbial contamination. It was characterized by TEM, AFM and FITR. Initial cytotoxicity was conducted in L929 cells to get the dose response. Oxidative stress potential, effect on proliferative capacity, genotoxicity and induction of apoptosis in PBMNCs treated with MRGO were assessed. MRGO elicited a dose dependent ROS generation which promoted apoptosis in PBMNCs. Proliferation of these cells were also found to be hindered. However, MRGO did not induce genotoxicity and generation of reactive nitrogen species. In conclusion MRGO shows a dose dependent toxicity in cells, generating ROS, inducing apoptosis and affecting proliferation, which may be due to the loss of exopolysaccharide coating due to autoclaving. This study raises a serious concern regarding the in vivo biomedical application of MRGO, where IV and IP are the main routes of exposure. Further evaluation is required regarding the interaction of autoclaved MRGO with the blood cells.


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