Evaluation of Urinary Pesticide Biomarkers among a Sample of the Population in the United States
Alex L LeBeau, Giffe T Johnson, James D McCluskey and Raymond D Harbison*
Center for Environmental and Occupational Risk Analysis and Management, College of Public Health, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, 33612, USA
- *Corresponding Author:
- Raymond D Harbison
13201 Bruce B Downs Blvd
MDC 56 Tampa, FL, 33612, USA
E-mail: [email protected]
Received date: March 27, 2012; Accepted date: April 06, 2012; Published date: April 19, 2012
Citation: LeBeau AL, Johnson GT, McCluskey JD, Harbison RD (2012) Evaluation of Urinary Pesticide Biomarkers among a Sample of the Population in the United States. J Clinic Toxicol S5:003. doi: 10.4172/2161-0495.S5-003
Copyright: © 2012 LeBeau AL, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Pesticide use in the United States continues to raise controversy over potential effects on human health. This investigation examined biomarkers of exposure levels in a sample of the United States population from the 2001-2002 NHANES dataset. The detection frequency of urinary biomarkers of exposure and the geometric mean were determined from 3,152 individual samples with stratified analysis for relevant subgroups. The association between the detection of a biomarker of exposure and differences in height and weight of children aged 6-11 was analyzed. Of the 18 specific pesticide biomarkers sampled, three were detected in more than 50% of the population sample: 79% had a detectable level of 3,5,6-trichloropyridinol, a biomarker of chlorpyrifos, with a geometric mean of 2.07 μg/L (C.I: 1.98-2.17); 53% had a detectable level of paranitrophenol, a biomarker of methyl parathion, with a geometric mean of 0.367 μg/L (C.I.: 0.346-0.389); and 77% had a detectable level of 3-phenoxybenzoic acid, a biomarker of permethrin, with a geometric mean of 0.336 μg/L (C.I.: 0.320-0.352). No clear trend emerged when evaluating associations between height and biomarker detection in children, with the absence of significant results for trichloropyridinol; heavier children associated with 3-phenoxybenzoic acid at age 7 [Detect=28.61 kg and Non- Detect=25.26 kg (p=0.009)]; and paranitrophenol being associated with shorter children at age 8 [Non-Detect=134.3 cm and Detect: 130.9 cm (p=0.046)] and taller children at age 11 [Detect=153.7 cm and Non-Detect=149.9 cm (p=0.022)]. A comparative analysis with extant epidemiological and biomonitoring literature is consistent with the findings reported here and suggests that there is insufficient evidence for a relationship between background exposure levels to these common pesticides and measured developmental health effects.