Evidence Based Targeting of Cytokines for Conventional and the Potential Phytotherapies in Management of Rheumatoid ArthritisDavid Nzioka Mutua1,2*, Juma KK1, Gitimu MR1 and Ireri MM1
- Corresponding Author:
- David Nzioka Mutua
Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology
School of Pure and Applied Sciences
Kenyatta University, PO Box 43844-00100, Nairobi, Kenya
E-mail: [email protected]
Received Date: March 06, 2017; Accepted Date: April 04, 2017; Published Date: April 10, 2017
Citation: Mutua DN, Juma KK, Gitimu MR, Ireri MM (2017) Evidence Based Targeting of Cytokines for Conventional and the Potential Phytotherapies in Management of Rheumatoid Arthritis. J Arthritis 6:236. doi:10.4172/2167-7921.1000236
Copyright: © 2017 Mutua DN, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease that leads to chronic, systemic inflammatory reaction that primarily affects synovial joints. Current cytokine based therapies are effective and safe. However, they have a challenge of having short plasma half-life and even higher doses are required to manage the conditions. The processes involved in production using phage and viral technologies are expensive. Herbal medicines have been used for long and are considered safe and effective as medicines for many inflammatory related diseases. Many plants also posit as a potent anti-inflammatory agents. Evidence for use of herbal plants in both human and animal trials in studies suggest significant potential of application in herbal formulation in management of rheumatoid arthritis. Specifically, many studies suggest the direct effect of managing the agents of inflammation as a way of managing rheumatoid arthritis. Most evidence links the involvement of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1, TNF-α, IFN-α, and NF-ÐºB) to the long term. It has also been suggested that the use of protective cytokines such as (Interleukin-4, Interleukin-6, Interleukin-8). Key pathways involve cyclooxygenase 1 and 2, 5-Lipooxygenase, formations of metalloproteinases, and inhibition of formation of prostaglandin E2. Use of herbal medicines has potential of improving joint conditions in rheumatoid arthritis. Use of herbal extracts offers better, cheap and affordable solution for long term management of rheumatoid arthritis in patients. They also show potential of offering multifunctional approaches to the management of the conditions through their anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Further studies are required to demonstrate the mechanisms involved in activation of protective cytokines in the management of rheumatoid arthritis.