alexa Ex vivo Effects of Sorafenib and Regorafenib on Murine
ISSN: 2161-0495

Journal of Clinical Toxicology
Open Access

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Research Article

Ex vivo Effects of Sorafenib and Regorafenib on Murine Hepatocytes

Ali S. Alfazari1, Saeeda Almarzooqi3, Alia Albawardi3, Sami Shaban4, Bayan Al-Dabbagh2, Dhanya Saraswathiamma3, Saeed Tariq5 and Abdul-Kader Souid6*

1Departments of Internal Medicine, UAE University, Al-Ain, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

2Department of Chemistry, College of Science, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates

3Pathology, UAE University, Al-Ain, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

4Medical Education, Al-Ain, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

5Anatomy, UAE University, Al-Ain, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

6Pediatrics, UAE University, Al-Ain, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

*Corresponding Author:
Abdul-Kader Souid
Departments of Pediatrics, UAE University
Al-Ain, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
Tel: +9-713-713-7429
Fax: +9-713-767-2022
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: May 22, 2014; Accepted Date: July 09, 2014; Published Date: July 14, 2014

Citation: Souid A, Almarzooqi S, Albawardi A, Shaban S, Al-Dabbagh B, et al. (2014) Ex vivo Effects of Sorafenib and Regorafenib on Murine Hepatocytes. J Clin Toxicol 4:207. doi: 10.4172/2161-0495.1000207

Copyright: © 2014, Souid A, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.



Sorafenib and regorafenib are structurally-related small-molecular-weight inhibitors of cellular kinases. Regorafenib has a Boxed Warning stating: “Severe and sometimes fatal hepatotoxicity has been observed in clinical trials”, while sorafenib is considered less hepatotoxic. This ex vivo study assessed the effects of sorafenib (2.5 and 50 μM) and regorafenib (5.0 and 50 μM) on liver structure, ultrastructure, cellular respiration (mitochondrial O2 consumption), ATP, caspase activity, urea synthesis, and glutathione. Liver fragments from Taylor Outbred mice were incubated in Krebs-Henseleit buffer (continuously gassed with 95% O2:5% CO2) with and without the drugs for 3 to 4 h. The presence of sorafenib or regorafenib had insignificant effects on liver structure, cellular respiration, ATP, caspase-3 activity, urea synthesis, and glutathione. At 3 h, liver histology with and without 2.5 μM sorafenib or 5.0 μM regorafenib was similar. Liver histology with 50 μM sorafenib was slightly worse than untreated tissue at 3 h, showing single hepatocyte necrosis and cellular disintegration. With 50 μM regorafenib, the histology was closely mirroring untreated tissue at 3 h. Similarly, caspase-3, caspase-9, cytochrome c, BAX and annexin A2 immunostains showed no significant drug effects at 4 h (2.5 μM sorafenib or 5.0 μM regorafenib). Electron microscopy revealed a more prominent loss of rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER) integrity with regorafenib treatment compared with sorafenib treatment. Thus, derangements in the rER were more prominent with regorafenib. Otherwise, the studied hepatic surrogate biomarkers did not distinguish between the two compounds.


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