alexa Ex vivo Effects of Sorafenib and Regorafenib on Murine
ISSN: 2161-0495

Journal of Clinical Toxicology
Open Access

Like us on:
OMICS International organises 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events every year across USA, Europe & Asia with support from 1000 more scientific Societies and Publishes 700+ Open Access Journals which contains over 50000 eminent personalities, reputed scientists as editorial board members.

Open Access Journals gaining more Readers and Citations

700 Journals and 15,000,000 Readers Each Journal is getting 25,000+ Readers

This Readership is 10 times more when compared to other Subscription Journals (Source: Google Analytics)

Research Article

Ex vivo Effects of Sorafenib and Regorafenib on Murine Hepatocytes

Ali S. Alfazari1, Saeeda Almarzooqi3, Alia Albawardi3, Sami Shaban4, Bayan Al-Dabbagh2, Dhanya Saraswathiamma3, Saeed Tariq5 and Abdul-Kader Souid6*
1Departments of Internal Medicine, UAE University, Al-Ain, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
2Department of Chemistry, College of Science, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates
3Pathology, UAE University, Al-Ain, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
4Medical Education, Al-Ain, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
5Anatomy, UAE University, Al-Ain, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
6Pediatrics, UAE University, Al-Ain, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
Corresponding Author : Abdul-Kader Souid
Departments of Pediatrics, UAE University
Al-Ain, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates
Tel: +9-713-713-7429
Fax: +9-713-767-2022
E-mail: [email protected]
Received May 22, 2014; Accepted July 09, 2014; Published July 14, 2014
Citation: Souid A, Almarzooqi S, Albawardi A, Shaban S, Al-Dabbagh B, et al. (2014) Ex vivo Effects of Sorafenib and Regorafenib on Murine Hepatocytes. J Clin Toxicol 4:207. doi:10.4172/2161-0495.1000207
Copyright: © 2014, Souid A, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Sorafenib and regorafenib are structurally-related small-molecular-weight inhibitors of cellular kinases. Regorafenib has a Boxed Warning stating: “Severe and sometimes fatal hepatotoxicity has been observed in clinical trials”, while sorafenib is considered less hepatotoxic. This ex vivo study assessed the effects of sorafenib (2.5 and 50 μM) and regorafenib (5.0 and 50 μM) on liver structure, ultrastructure, cellular respiration (mitochondrial O2 consumption), ATP, caspase activity, urea synthesis, and glutathione. Liver fragments from Taylor Outbred mice were incubated in Krebs-Henseleit buffer (continuously gassed with 95% O2:5% CO2) with and without the drugs for 3 to 4 h. The presence of sorafenib or regorafenib had insignificant effects on liver structure, cellular respiration, ATP, caspase-3 activity, urea synthesis, and glutathione. At 3 h, liver histology with and without 2.5 μM sorafenib or 5.0 μM regorafenib was similar. Liver histology with 50 μM sorafenib was slightly worse than untreated tissue at 3 h, showing single hepatocyte necrosis and cellular disintegration. With 50 μM regorafenib, the histology was closely mirroring untreated tissue at 3 h. Similarly, caspase-3, caspase-9, cytochrome c, BAX and annexin A2 immunostains showed no significant drug effects at 4 h (2.5 μM sorafenib or 5.0 μM regorafenib). Electron microscopy revealed a more prominent loss of rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER) integrity with regorafenib treatment compared with sorafenib treatment. Thus, derangements in the rER were more prominent with regorafenib. Otherwise, the studied hepatic surrogate biomarkers did not distinguish between the two compounds.


Share This Page

Additional Info

Loading Please wait..
Peer Reviewed Journals
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version