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ISSN 2155-6113

Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research
Open Access

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Research Article

Exploring Factors Associated with Recent HIV Testing among Heterosexuals at High Risk for HIV Infection Recruited with Venue-based Sampling

Marya Gwadz1*, Charles M. Cleland1, Samuel M. Jenness2, Elizabeth Silverman1, Holly Hagan1, Amanda S. Ritchie1, Noelle R. Leonard1, Talaya McCright-Gill1, Belkis Martinez1, Quentin Swain1, Alexandra Kutnick1 and Dawa Sherpa1,3

1New York University College of Nursing, USA

2Emory University, USA

3The BCAP Collaborative Research Team, USA

*Corresponding Author:
Marya Gwadz
Center for Drug Use and HIV Research (CDUHR)
NYU College of Nursing, 433 First Avenue
Room 748, New York, NY 10010, USA
Tel: 212-992-7147
Fax: 212-995-3143
Email: [email protected]

Received date: December 08, 2015; Accepted date: February 08, 2016; Published date: February 15, 2016

Citation: Gwadz M, Cleland CM, Jenness SM, Silverman E, Hagan H, et al. (2016) Exploring Factors Associated with Recent HIV Testing among Heterosexuals at High Risk for HIV Infection Recruited with Venue-based Sampling. J AIDS Clin Res 7:544. doi:10.4172/2155-6113.1000544

Copyright: © 2016 Gwadz M, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.



Annual HIV testing is recommended for high-risk populations in the United States, to identify HIV infections early and provide timely linkage to treatment. However, heterosexuals at high risk for HIV, due to their residence in urban areas of high poverty and elevated HIV prevalence, test for HIV less frequently than other risk groups, and late diagnosis of HIV is common. Yet the factors impeding HIV testing in this group, which is predominantly African American/Black and Latino/Hispanic, are poorly understood. The present study addresses this gap. Using a systematic community-based sampling method, venue-based sampling (VBS), we estimate rates of lifetime and recent (past year) HIV testing among high-risk heterosexuals (HRH), and explore a set of putative multi-level barriers to and facilitators of recent testing, by gender. Participants were 338 HRH African American/Black and Latino/Hispanic adults recruited using VBS, who completed a computerized structured assessment battery guided by the Theory of Triadic Influence, comprised of reliable/valid measures on socio-demographic characteristics, HIV testing history, and multi-level barriers to HIV testing. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with HIV testing within the past year. Most HRH had tested at least once (94%), and more than half had tested within the past year (58%), but only 37% tested annually. In both men and women, the odds of recent testing were similar and associated with structural factors (better access to testing) and sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing and diagnosis. Thus VBS identified serious gaps in rates of annual HIV testing among HRH. Improvements in access to high-quality HIV testing and leveraging of STI testing are needed to increase the proportion of HRH testing annually for HIV. Such improvements could increase early detection of HIV, improve the long-term health of individuals, and reduce HIV transmission by increasing rates of viral suppression.


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