alexa Exploring Wild Tomato Leaf Extracts in Pesticide Formul
ISSN: 2161-0525

Journal of Environmental & Analytical Toxicology
Open Access

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Research Article

Exploring Wild Tomato Leaf Extracts in Pesticide Formulations

Francis Ayuka*, and Ross Barnett
College of Agriculture, Food Science and Sustainable Systems, Division of Environmental Studies, Kentucky State University, Frankfort, Kentucky, USA
Corresponding Author : George F. Antonious
Professor, College of Agriculture
Food Science and Sustainable Systems
Division of Environmental Studies, Kentucky State University
104 Chappell Building, Frankfort, KY 40601-2355, USA
Tel:
5025976005
Fax: 5025976763
E-mail: [email protected]
Received December 29, 2015; Accepted January 10, 2016; Published January 15, 2016
Citation:Antonious GF (2016) Exploring Wild Tomato Leaf Extracts in Pesticide Formulations. J Environ Anal Toxicol 6:347. doi:10.4172/2161-0525.1000347
Copyright: © 2016 Antonious GF. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Abstract

Crude extracts from the leaves of the wild tomato, Lycopersicon hirsutum f. glabratum accession PI 134417 possess a pestresistance mechanism in their glandular trichomes (plant hairs) and the exudates they produce due to the presence of a mixture of methyl ketones (MKs) that has insecticidal and acaricidal properties. Type IV and VI glandular trichomes on the leaves of PI 134417 grown under greenhouse conditions were counted. Major volatile oils from glandular leaf trichomes were extracted, purified, and quantified using gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The main objectives of this investigation were to: 1) monitor seasonal glandular trichomes density on PI 134417 for mass production of MKs and 2) prepare a simplified formulation of MKs for potential use of PI 134417 leaf extracts, which could become a valuable source of natural products, in plant protection against spider mites and cowpea aphids. Type IV and type VI trichomes were greatest (P<0.05) in September and October (97 and 238 trichomes mm-2), respectively. Quantification of MKs in emulsified extracts of PI 134417 revealed the dominance of 2-tridecanone (the 13-carbon methyl ketone) compared to other MKs (2-undecanone, 2-dodecanone, and 2-pentadecanone) on the leaf surface. Crude leaf extracts of PI 134417 prepared in water caused 33 and 22% mortality, whereas, water extracts containing 1% Alkamuls (an organic emulsifier) caused 93 and 82% mortality of spider mites and cowpea aphis, respectively, 1 d after exposure.

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