alexa Extent of Cerebrovascular Disruption Following Blast Exposure is Influenced by the Duration of the Positive Phase in Addition to Peak Overpressure | OMICS International
ISSN: 2155-9562

Journal of Neurology & Neurophysiology
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Research Article

Extent of Cerebrovascular Disruption Following Blast Exposure is Influenced by the Duration of the Positive Phase in Addition to Peak Overpressure

Dexter V Reneer1,2, Carolyn A Crowdus1,2, Sarbani Ghoshal1, Julie Corkins1, Richard D Hisel3, Braden T Lusk4 and James W Geddes1,2*

1Spinal Cord and Brain Injury Research Center, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA

2Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA

3Department of Biostatistics, College of Public Health, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA

4Department of Mining Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA

Corresponding Author:
James W Geddes
Spinal Cord and Brain Injury Research Center
B477 Biomedical & Biological Sciences Research Building (BBSRB) 741. S. Limestone Street
University of Kentucky Lexington, KY 40536-0509
Tel: 859-323-5135
Fax: 859-257-5737
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date: November 01, 2013; Accepted date: January 24, 2014; Published date: February 05, 2014

Citation: Reneer DV, Crowdus CA, Ghoshal S, Corkins J, Hisel RD, et al. (2014) Extent of Cerebrovascular Disruption Following Blast Exposure is Influenced by the Duration of the Positive Phase in Addition to Peak Overpressure. J Neurol Neurophysiol 5:188. doi:10.4172/2155-9562.1000188

Copyright: © 2014 Reneer DV, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Abstract

Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) has been described as the defining injury of Operations Enduring
Freedom and Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF). Although there has been a significant amount of research characterizing
the brain injury produced by blast, greater understanding of the contribution of each component of the shockwave
to the injury is needed. Large animal models of bTBI utilize chemical explosives as their shockwave source while
small animal models predominantly utilize compressed air-driven membrane rupture as their shockwave source. We
previously designed and built a multi-mode shock tube capable of utilizing air-driven membrane rupture or chemical
explosives (oxyhydrogen: A 2:1 mixture of hydrogen and oxygen gasses to produce a shockwave. Compressed airdriven
shockwaves exhibited longer duration positive phases than compressed oxyhydrogen-driven shockwaves of
similar peak overpressure. The longer duration of compressed air-driven shockwaves results in greater energy being
imparted on a test subject than would be impacted by shockwaves of identical peak overpressures from the other
sources. Animals exposed to compressed air-driven shockwaves exhibited more extensive brain surface hematoma
and more blood-brain barrier compromise than did animals exposed to oxyhydrogen-driven shockwaves of even
greater peak overpressure. Taken together, these data suggest that compressed air-driven shockwaves contain more
energy than their chemical explosive-derived counterparts of equal peak overpressure and can result in greater injury
in an experimental animal model. Additionally, these data suggest that exposure to longer duration shockwaves can
result in more severe bTBI. The results of this study are relevant to the design of blast wave mitigation technology
and future clinical intervention

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