Extent of Under Reporting of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) in India: Evaluation using Logistic Regression Analysis (LRA) Model
|Mala Kharkar1* and Suresh Bowalekar2|
|1Vice Principal, Patkar and Varde College, Mumbai, India|
|2Ex-Managing Director, Pharma Net Clinical services Pvt. Ltd, Mumbai, India|
|Corresponding Author :||Mala Kharkar
Vice Principal, Patkar and Varde College
Goregaon (west), Mumbai, India
E-mail: [email protected]
|Received January 22, 2014; Accepted February 17, 2014; Published February 19, 2014|
|Citation: Kharkar M, Bowalekar S (2014) Extent of Under Reporting of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) in India: Evaluation using Logistic Regression Analysis (LRA) Model. J Clin Trials 4:155. doi:10.4172/2167-0870.1000155|
|Copyright: © 2014 Kharkar M, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.|
Objective: 1. To determine
a. Statistically, the Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) related variables responsible for underreporting of ADRs in
India, using Logistic Regression Analysis (LRA) Model,
b. Extent of under reporting of ADRs at the current KAP levels of Medical Practitioners (MPs).
2. To recommend measures at National level to reduce underreporting of ADRs
Methods: The results of survey on KAPs of MPs in India towards underreporting of ADRs were published. In the survey, the information was provided on number of ADRs observed during medical practice and number of ADRs reported to ADR monitoring center by 116 MPs. MPs reported less than 25% of ADRs was assumed to contribute to underreporting. Thus, dependent variable ‘underreporting’ was measured on binary scale as ‘Yes’ or ‘No’. Similarly, six independent variables were also measured on a binary scale as ‘Yes’ or ‘No’. The six 2×2 contingency tables were prepared with ‘underreporting’ as dependent variable and each of the 6 independent variables. However, contingency table assumes the levels of all other independent variables to be the same, which is unrealistic and thus fails to estimate the true odds ratio. Hence, Logistic Regression Analysis was used to analyze the data.
Results: 2×2 contingency tables revealed that each independent variable was significantly associated with ‘underreporting’. The odds ratio was statistically significant with all six variables. Stepwise LRA applied to data of 116 MPs, picked up 4 variables as statistically significant (P<0.05).
Conclusion: At the current level of KAP of MPs, there is high probability of continuing the problem of underreporting of ADRs. To reduce the rate of underreporting it is recommended to develop appropriate training modules at National level to create awareness among all healthcare professionals and design simple ADR forms and procedures for ADR reporting.