alexa Extraction of Proteins from Mackerel Fish Processing Waste Using Alcalase Enzyme
ISSN: 2155-9821

Journal of Bioprocessing & Biotechniques
Open Access

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Research Article

Extraction of Proteins from Mackerel Fish Processing Waste Using Alcalase Enzyme

Ramakrishnan VV, Ghaly AE*, Brooks MS and Budge SM
Department of Process Engineering and Applied Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
Corresponding Author : Ghaly AE
Professor, Department of Process Engineering and Applied Science
Faculty of Engineering, Dalhousie University
Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
Tel: (902)494-6014
E-mail: [email protected]
Received June 26, 2013; Accepted July 29, 2013; Published August 05, 2013
Citation: Ramakrishnan VV, Ghaly AE, Brooks MS, Budge SM (2013) Extraction of Proteins from Mackerel Fish Processing Waste Using Alcalase Enzyme. J Bioprocess Biotech 3:130 doi: 10.4172/2155-9821.1000130
Copyright: © 2013 Ramakrishnan VV, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
 

Abstract

Fish proteins are found in the flesh, head, frames, fin, tail, skin and guts of the fish in varying quantities. Unutilized fish and fish processing waste can be used to produce fish proteins which contain amino acids and many bioactive peptides. After removing the fish flesh during the fish processing operation, all other parts are considered wastes which are not properly utilized. The aim of this study was to evaluate the enzymatic extraction of protein from mackerel fish processing waste. Enzymatic extraction of proteins was carried out using alcalase enzyme at three concentrations (0.5, 1 or 2%) and four hydrolysis times (1, 2, 3 and 4 h). The fish protein hydrolysate was dried using a spray dryer to obtain protein powder. The highest protein yield (76.30% from whole fish and 74.53% from the frame) was obtained using 2.0% enzyme concentration after 4 h of hydrolysis. The results showed that increasing the enzyme concentration from 0.5 to 2% (400%) increased the protein yield by 3.13- 43.52% depending upon the fish part and reaction time used. Increasing the enzyme concentration by 4 fold for a small increase in protein yield may appear unjustified. Therefore, the enzyme concentration of 0.5% should be used for the protein extraction unless the enzyme is recycled or an immobilized reactor is used in order to reduce the cost associated with the enzyme. Also, increasing the hydrolysis time from 1 to 4 h (400%) increased the protein yield by 16.45 - 50.82% depending upon the fish part and enzyme concentration used. Increasing the hydrolysis time by 4 fold for a small increase in protein yield will increase the capital and operating costs of protein production. A shorter hydrolysis time will allow more throughput and/or reduce the volume of the reactor thereby reducing the cost of protein extraction. Therefore, a 1 h reaction time for protein extraction is recommended. The results showed that the combined fish waste can be used for protein extraction without any segregation.

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