alexa Factors Affecting Off-farm Employment of Small Farmers in Peshawar Valley
ISSN: 2151-6200

Arts and Social Sciences Journal
Open Access

OMICS International organises 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events every year across USA, Europe & Asia with support from 1000 more scientific Societies and Publishes 700+ Open Access Journals which contains over 50000 eminent personalities, reputed scientists as editorial board members.

Open Access Journals gaining more Readers and Citations

700 Journals and 15,000,000 Readers Each Journal is getting 25,000+ Readers

This Readership is 10 times more when compared to other Subscription Journals (Source: Google Analytics)

Research Article

Factors Affecting Off-farm Employment of Small Farmers in Peshawar Valley

Haidar Ali*, Malik Muhammad Shafi and Noor Paio Khan

Institute of Development Studies, Faculty of Rural Social Science, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Pakistan

*Corresponding Author:
Ali H
Institute of Development Studies
Faculty of Rural Social Science
The University of Agriculture
Peshawar, Pakistan
Tel: +923339350722
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: March 23, 2017; Accepted Date: April 05, 2017; Published Date: April 11, 2017

Citation: Ali H, Shafi MM, Khan NP (2017) Factors Affecting Off-farm Employment of Small Farmers in Peshawar Valley. Arts Social Sci J 8: 262. doi:10.4172/2151-6200.1000262

Copyright: © 2017 Ali H, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.



The present study investigated the factors affecting off-farm employment of small farmers in Peshawar Valley. A sample of 201 small farmers was selected using random sampling technique and data were collected through a pretested interview schedule. This study focuses on two selected districts i.e. Peshawar, and Charsadda. Four villages were selected two each from the sampled districts. Analysis showed that the coefficients of household size, educational level of the sampled respondent, age of the sample small farmer, were positively related to the off-farm employment, while farm area operated was negatively but significantly related to off-farm employment. Similarly the small farm households of developed villages perform more off-farm employment than the small farm households of underdeveloped villages. This could be associated to the developed means of transport and communications, better education facilities, market facilities as well as availability of off-farm jobs locally. In developed villages of two districts, average per month income of sample small farmers from farm output was higher than the undeveloped villages of these districts due to the high sale price of vegetables grown on large area and more milk production. Similarly, in developed villages income from off-farm employment was more than undeveloped villages. Because large number of family labors of sample respondents were working on high paid jobs or employed else or selfemployed and thus contributed a good amount to their family’s income. The study recommends that unemployment in the agriculture sector is likely to increase with the decrease in the size of holdings. To generate off-farm employment opportunities agro based industries seems to potential area. Simultaneously there is need for initiating skill development programs.


Share This Page

Additional Info

Loading Please wait..
Peer Reviewed Journals
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri, Food, Aqua and Veterinary Science Journals

Dr. Krish

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Clinical and Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals


[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Earth & Environmental Sciences

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science and Health care Journals

Andrea Jason

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics and Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Informatics Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Material Sciences Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Mathematics and Physics Journals

Jim Willison

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

John Behannon

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version