alexa Factors Associated with Symptoms of Depression among Injection Drug Users Receiving Antiretroviral Treatment in Indonesia | OMICS International | Abstract
ISSN 2155-6113

Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research
Open Access

Like us on:

OMICS International organises 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events every year across USA, Europe & Asia with support from 1000 more scientific Societies and Publishes 700+ Open Access Journals which contains over 50000 eminent personalities, reputed scientists as editorial board members.

Open Access Journals gaining more Readers and Citations
700 Journals and 15,000,000 Readers Each Journal is getting 25,000+ Readers

This Readership is 10 times more when compared to other Subscription Journals (Source: Google Analytics)

Research Article

Factors Associated with Symptoms of Depression among Injection Drug Users Receiving Antiretroviral Treatment in Indonesia

Yi Li1, Ronald Hershow1*, Irwanto2, Ignatius Praptoraharjo2, Made Setiawan3 and Judith Levy4

1University of Illinois at Chicago School of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology-Biostatistics, Chicago, Illinois, USA

2Atma Jaya Catholic University of Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia

3Udayana University, Denpasar, Indonesia

4University of Illinois at Chicago School of Public Health, Department of Health Policy and Administration, Chicago, Illinois, USA

*Corresponding Author:
Ronald Hershow
University of Illinois at Chicago School of Public Health
Department of Epidemiology-Biostatistics
1603 W. Taylor Street, Chicago, Illinois 60612 USA
Tel: 312-996-4759
Fax: 312-996-0064
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: March 20, 2014; Accepted Date: April 16, 2014; Published Date: April 27, 2014

Citation: Li Y, Hershow R, Irwanto, Praptoraharjo I, Setiawan M, et al. (2014) Factors Associated with Symptoms of Depression among Injection Drug Users Receiving Antiretroviral Treatment in Indonesia. J AIDS Clin Res 5:303. doi:10.4172/2155-6113.1000303

Copyright: © 2014 Li Y, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Objective: Few studies have examined psychiatric comorbidity among HIV positive injection drug users (IDUs) in resource-limiting settings. We sought to identify key factors associated with symptoms of depression among IDUs receiving antiretroviral (ARV) treatment in Jakarta and Denpasar, Indonesia.

Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted at five ARV delivery sites in Indonesia. Former IDUs aged 18 years or older having received ARV treatment for at least three months (n=117) were recruited and interviewed faceto- face. A 9-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale was used to measure symptoms of depression. A structured questionnaire measured participants’ demographic characteristics, social support and services received, current substance use, and treatment for drug dependency and HIV. Multiple logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI).

Results: Of the 117 participants, 33% (39) exhibited symptoms of depression, 24% (28) reported using an illicit substance in the past month, and 29% (34) were in methadone treatment. Depressive symptoms were significantly associated with recent substance use in the last 30 days (AOR, 95% CI: 5.3, 1.9 to 15.4) and being on methadone (3.5, 1.2 to 10). Older age (per year 0.9, 0.8 to 1), full-time employment (0.2, 0.1 to 0.7), and living with parents (0.2, 0.1 to 0.6) appeared to be protective.

Conclusion: The results suggest that depression is common among Indonesian IDUs, even among patients enrolled in methadone treatment. HIV clinics and drug treatment programs need to recognize the risk/protective factors and also provide services to address this common comorbidity.


Peer Reviewed Journals
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2018-19
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri & Aquaculture Journals

Dr. Krish

[email protected]

+1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals


[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Clinical Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Food & Nutrition Journals

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science

Andrea Jason

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics & Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Materials Science Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Nursing & Health Care Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

Ann Jose

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

© 2008- 2018 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
Leave Your Message 24x7