Factors Associated with Symptoms of Depression among Injection Drug Users Receiving Antiretroviral Treatment in Indonesia
- *Corresponding Author:
- Ronald Hershow
University of Illinois at Chicago School of Public Health
Department of Epidemiology-Biostatistics
1603 W. Taylor Street, Chicago, Illinois 60612 USA
E-mail: [email protected]
Received Date: March 20, 2014; Accepted Date: April 16, 2014; Published Date: April 27, 2014
Citation: Li Y, Hershow R, Irwanto, Praptoraharjo I, Setiawan M, et al. (2014) Factors Associated with Symptoms of Depression among Injection Drug Users Receiving Antiretroviral Treatment in Indonesia. J AIDS Clin Res 5:303. doi:10.4172/2155-6113.1000303
Copyright: © 2014 Li Y, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Objective: Few studies have examined psychiatric comorbidity among HIV positive injection drug users (IDUs) in resource-limiting settings. We sought to identify key factors associated with symptoms of depression among IDUs receiving antiretroviral (ARV) treatment in Jakarta and Denpasar, Indonesia.
Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted at five ARV delivery sites in Indonesia. Former IDUs aged 18 years or older having received ARV treatment for at least three months (n=117) were recruited and interviewed faceto- face. A 9-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale was used to measure symptoms of depression. A structured questionnaire measured participants’ demographic characteristics, social support and services received, current substance use, and treatment for drug dependency and HIV. Multiple logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI).
Results: Of the 117 participants, 33% (39) exhibited symptoms of depression, 24% (28) reported using an illicit substance in the past month, and 29% (34) were in methadone treatment. Depressive symptoms were significantly associated with recent substance use in the last 30 days (AOR, 95% CI: 5.3, 1.9 to 15.4) and being on methadone (3.5, 1.2 to 10). Older age (per year 0.9, 0.8 to 1), full-time employment (0.2, 0.1 to 0.7), and living with parents (0.2, 0.1 to 0.6) appeared to be protective.
Conclusion: The results suggest that depression is common among Indonesian IDUs, even among patients enrolled in methadone treatment. HIV clinics and drug treatment programs need to recognize the risk/protective factors and also provide services to address this common comorbidity.