alexa Female Renal Transplant Recipients Potentially at Incre
ISSN: 2155-9880

Journal of Clinical & Experimental Cardiology
Open Access

Like us on:
OMICS International organises 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events every year across USA, Europe & Asia with support from 1000 more scientific Societies and Publishes 700+ Open Access Journals which contains over 50000 eminent personalities, reputed scientists as editorial board members.

Open Access Journals gaining more Readers and Citations

700 Journals and 15,000,000 Readers Each Journal is getting 25,000+ Readers

This Readership is 10 times more when compared to other Subscription Journals (Source: Google Analytics)

Research Article

Female Renal Transplant Recipients Potentially at Increased Risk of Fatal Coronary Heart Disease Associated with Ambient Air Pollutants

Rhonda Spencer-Hwang1,2*, Synnove Fonnebo Knutsen1, Mark Ghamsary1, W. Lawrence Beeson1, Keiji Oda1, David Shavlik1, Navin Jaipaul3 and Sam Soret2
1Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, California, USA
2Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, California, USA
3Division of Nephrology, Jerry L. Pettis Memorial VA Medical Center and Loma Linda, University School of Medicine, Loma Linda, California, USA
Corresponding Author : Rhonda Spencer-Hwang
DrPH, MPH, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health
Loma Linda University, School of Public Health
Nichol Hall, Loma Linda, CA 92354, USA
Tel: 909-558-8750
Fax: 558- 0326
E-mail: [email protected]
Received October 31, 2011; Accepted December 23, 2011; Published December 27, 2011
Citation: Spencer-Hwang R, Fonnebo Knutsen S, Ghamsary M, Beeson WL, Oda K, et al. (2011) Female Renal Transplant Recipients Potentially at Increased Risk of Fatal Coronary Heart Disease Associated with Ambient Air Pollutants. J Clinic Experiment Cardiol S6:001.doi:10.4172/2155-9880.S6-001
Copyright: © 2011 Spencer-Hwang R, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Related article at
DownloadPubmed DownloadScholar Google


Background: There is increasing evidence that specific ambient air pollutants are associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) morbidity and mortality and risks may differ by gender. Renal transplant recipients have previously been identified as a potentially sensitive subgroup. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possible effect of long-term ambient pollutant ozone (O3) and particulate matter (PM10) on risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality and determine if gender differences exist among renal transplant recipients. Methods: This retrospective cohort study included 38,101 (22,276 males and 15,825 females) subjects identified through the US Renal Data System (USRDS), which included adult, renal transplant recipients, transplanted between 1997-2003, and living in the continental U.S.A. Air pollution statistics collected over the national ambient monitoring network, were extracted from US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Air Quality System (AQS). Mean monthly concentrations of O3, and PM10 calculated from ambient monitoring data and interpolated to ZIP code centroids according to residence of the subjects. Cox proportional hazard models used to estimate effect of air pollutants on mortality (CHD) risks, while adjusting for potential confounders. All analyses conducted were gender-specific. Results: In both the age-and multivariable adjusted models, there was a significant association between risk of fatal CHD and O3 for females (HR=1.56, 95%CI: 1.06-2.30), no significant association found for males. O3 displayed the strongest association with CHD mortality among females with a HR=1.57 (95%CI: 1.07-2.30) after adjustment for PM10 in the two pollutant multivariable model. For both pollutants and across all models, females consistently experienced greater risk than males. No significant association identified for PM10 for either gender. Conclusions: The findings from our study have potential implications for policies and regulations of air pollution. Gender, as a higher risk category, may be relevant in developing individual CHD risk reduction strategies for renal transplant recipients to ultimately improve long-term survival.


Share This Page

Additional Info

Loading Please wait..
Peer Reviewed Journals
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version