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ISSN: 2376-0214

Journal of Biodiversity, Bioprospecting and Development
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Research Article

File Compression and Expansion of the Genetic Code by the Use of theYin/Yang Directions to Find its Sphered Cube

Fernando Castro Chavez*
Department of Medicine, Atherosclerosis and Vascular Medicine Section, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA
*Corresponding Author : Fernando Castro Chavez
Department of Medicine
Atherosclerosis and Vascular Medicine Section
Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA
Tel: +1 713 798 4177
Fax: 713-798-4121
E-mail: [email protected]
Received March 04, 2014; Accepted May 20, 2014; Published June 05, 2014
Citation: Chavez FC (2014) File Compression and Expansion of the Genetic Code by the Use of the Yin/Yang Directions to Find its Sphered Cube. J Biodivers Biopros Dev 1:112. doi:10.4172/2376-0214.1000112
Copyright: © 2014 Chavez FC. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Abstract

Objective: The objective of this article is to demonstrate that the genetic code can be studied and represented in a 3-D Sphered Cube for bioinformatics and for education by using the graphical help of the ancient “Book of Changes” or I Ching for the comparison, pair by pair, of the three basic characteristics of nucleotides: H-bonds, molecular structure, and their tautomerism. Methods: The source of natural biodiversity is the high plasticity of the genetic code, analyzable with a reverse engineering of its 2-D and 3-D representations (here illustrated), but also through the classical 64-hexagrams of the ancient I Ching, as if they were the 64-codons or words of the genetic code. Results: In this article, the four elements of the Yin/Yang were found by correlating the 3x2=6 sets of Cartesian comparisons of the mentioned properties of nucleic acids, to the directionality of their resulting blocks of codons grouped according to their resulting amino acids and/or functions, integrating a 384 codon Sphered Cube whose function is illustrated by comparing six brain peptides and a promoter of osteoblasts from Humans versus Neanderthal, as well as to Negadi’s work on the importance of the number 384 within the genetic code. Conclusions: Starting with the codon/anticodon correlation of Nirenberg, published in full here for the first time, and by studying the genetic code and its 3-D display, the buffers of reiteration within codons codifying for the same amino acid, displayed the two long (binary number one) and older Yin/Yang arrows that travel in opposite directions, mimicking the parental DNA strands, while annealing to the two younger and broken (binary number zero) Yin/Yang arrows, mimicking the new DNA strands; the graphic analysis of the genetic code and its plasticity was helpful to compare compatible sequences, while further exploring the wondrous biodiversity of nature for educational purposes.

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