File Compression and Expansion of the Genetic Code by the Use of the Yin/Yang Directions to Find its Sphered Cube
Received Date: Mar 04, 2014 / Accepted Date: May 20, 2014 / Published Date: Jun 05, 2014
Objective: The objective of this article is to demonstrate that the genetic code can be studied and represented in a 3-D Sphered Cube for bioinformatics and for education by using the graphical help of the ancient “Book of Changes” or I Ching for the comparison, pair by pair, of the three basic characteristics of nucleotides: H-bonds, molecular structure, and their tautomerism.
Methods: The source of natural biodiversity is the high plasticity of the genetic code, analyzable with a reverse engineering of its 2-D and 3-D representations (here illustrated), but also through the classical 64-hexagrams of the ancient I Ching, as if they were the 64-codons or words of the genetic code.
Results: In this article, the four elements of the Yin/Yang were found by correlating the 3x2=6 sets of Cartesian comparisons of the mentioned properties of nucleic acids, to the directionality of their resulting blocks of codons grouped according to their resulting amino acids and/or functions, integrating a 384 codon Sphered Cube whose function is illustrated by comparing six brain peptides and a promoter of osteoblasts from Humans versus Neanderthal, as well as to Negadi’s work on the importance of the number 384 within the genetic code.
Conclusions: Starting with the codon/anticodon correlation of Nirenberg, published in full here for the first time, and by studying the genetic code and its 3-D display, the buffers of reiteration within codons codifying for the same amino acid, displayed the two long (binary number one) and older Yin/Yang arrows that travel in opposite directions, mimicking the parental DNA strands, while annealing to the two younger and broken (binary number zero) Yin/Yang arrows, mimicking the new DNA strands; the graphic analysis of the genetic code and its plasticity was helpful to compare compatible sequences, while further exploring the wondrous biodiversity of nature for educational purposes.
Keywords: Genetic code; I Ching; Cube; Sphered cube; Cubed sphere; Yin and yang; Bioinformatics
Citation: Castro-Chavez F (2014) File Compression and Expansion of the Genetic Code by the Use of the Yin/Yang Directions to Find its Sphered Cube. J Biodivers Biopros Dev 1: 112. Doi: 10.4172/2376-0214.1000112
Copyright: ©2014 Castro-Chavez F. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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