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Flood Hazard Assessment and Mapping of Flood Inundation Area of the Awash River Basin in Ethiopia using GIS and HEC-GeoRAS/HEC-RAS Model | OMICS International | Abstract
ISSN: 2165-784X

Journal of Civil & Environmental Engineering
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Research Article

Flood Hazard Assessment and Mapping of Flood Inundation Area of the Awash River Basin in Ethiopia using GIS and HEC-GeoRAS/HEC-RAS Model

Getahun YS1*and Gebre SL2
1Department of Natural Resources Management, Debre Berhan University, Ethiopia
2Department of Natural Resources Management, Jimma University, Ethiopia
Corresponding Author : Yitea Sineshaw Getahun
Department of Natural Resources
Management, Debre Berhan
University, Ethiopia
Tel: +251919396017
E-mail: [email protected]
Received: June 22, 2015 Accepted: July 09, 2015 Published: July 19, 2015
Citation: Getahun YS, Gebre SL (2015) Flood Hazard Assessment and Mapping of Flood Inundation Area of the Awash River Basin in Ethiopia using GIS and HEC-GeoRAS/HEC-RAS Model. J Civil Environ Eng 5:179. doi:10.4172/2165-784X.1000179
Copyright: © 2015 Getahun YS, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Abstract

Flood is a natural disaster and causes loss of life and property destruction. The objective of this study was to analyze flood hazard and inundation area mapping of Awash River Basin. Flood generating factors, i.e. slope, elevation, rainfall, drainage density, land use, and soil type were rated and combined to delineate flood hazard zones using a multi-criteria evaluation technique in a GIS environment. The weight of each flood generating factor was computed by pair wise comparison for a final weighted overlay analysis of all factors to generate the flood hazard map. The flood hazard map indicates that 2103.34, 35406.63, 59271.09, 162827.96, and 1491.66 km2 corresponds with very high, high, moderate, low, and very low flood hazard, respectively. The flooded areas along the Awash River have been mapped based on the 5% exceedance highest flows for different return periods using the HEC-RAS model, GIS for spatial data processing and HEC-GeoRAS for interfacing between HEC-RAS and GIS. The areas along the Awash River simulated to be inundated for 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 years return periods. The flooded areas were high particularly from Dubti down to Lake Abe for all return periods. The flooded areas along the Awash River are 117, 107, 84, 68, and 38 km2 for 100, 50, 25, 10, and 5 year return periods, respectively when using 5% highest data from the Adaitu gauging station. The major findings in the study revealed that inundated areas in the upper and middle part of Awash River Basin are low as compared to the downstream part. Proper land use management and afforestation, is significant to reduce the adverse effects of flooding particularly in the low-lying flood prone areas.The result of the report will help the concerned bodies to formulate develop strategies according to the available flood hazard to the area.

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