alexa Fluoride Excretion in Whole Saliva and Urine After Intake of Fluoridated Milk With or Without Breakfast in Young Adults | OMICS International | Abstract
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Research Article

Fluoride Excretion in Whole Saliva and Urine After Intake of Fluoridated Milk With or Without Breakfast in Young Adults

Abstract

Aims: The aim of this study was to compare salivary and urinary fluoride (F) excretion in young adults drinking fluoridated milk on its own, subsequent to breakfast, or simultaneously with food consumption. Methods: After informed consent had been obtained, 27 healthy adults of both sexes (aged 18-22 years) were investigated in a four-phase experiment, of which the first was the baseline phase. Each morning on a single occasion, the participants consumed either: (1) a standard breakfast; or (2) 200 ml fluoridated milk (5 mg F/l); or (3) standard breakfast and after two hours 200 ml fluoridated milk; or (4) 200 ml fluoridated milk during standard breakfast. The test period lasted four weeks and the sampling took place on the same day each week. Whole saliva was collected immediately after F intake (0) and after 15, 60, and 120 minutes. Urine was also collected over 24 hours. The fluoride content of both the saliva and urine was analysed using F selective electrode by the direct method. The statistical analysis was performed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results: Significant differences could be observed between the salivary F concentrations measured at 0, 15, 60, and 120 minutes after F intake in all phases (P<0.0001). Fluoride ingestion by milk caused a significant increase in the amount of fluoride in saliva immediately after intake and also after 15 minutes compared to the baseline (P<0.001). The highest values (mean±SD) of the salivary F content (?gF/ml) were measured when fluoridated milk was consumed two hours after breakfast: 0.263±0.197 and 0.090±0.027, respectively. Daily urinary fluoride excretion (mean±SD, ?gF/24h) showed significant differences between phases: (1) 345±101; (2) 454±148; (3) 757±263; and (4) 663±173 (P<0.0001). Conclusions: The results indicated that in the young adults who participated in the study, the fluoride content in the saliva and also the amount of fluoride excreted in the urine were the highest when drinking fluoridated milk two hours after breakfast. The findings suggest that fluoride availability is influenced by the timing of solid food intake.

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