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ISSN: 2155-9899

Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology
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Review Article

From Individuals to Populations: Immunological and Epidemiological Significance of Co-infection in the Dynamics of HIV

Diego F. Cuadros1,2* and Laith J. Abu-Raddad1,2,3
1Infectious Disease Epidemiology Group, Weill Cornell Medical College - Qatar, Cornell University, Qatar Foundation - Education City, Doha, Qatar
2Department of Public Health, Weill Cornell Medical College, Cornell University, New York, USA
3Vaccine and Infectious Disease Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, USA
Corresponding Author : Diego F. Cuadros, Ph.D
Infectious Disease Epidemiology Group
Weill Cornell Medical College – Qatar, Qatar Foundation
- Education City, P.O. Box 24144, Doha, Qatar
Tel: +(974) 4492-8489
Fax : +(974) 4492-8333
E-mail: [email protected]
Received September 02, 2012; Accepted September 06, 2012; Published September 13, 2012
Citation: Cuadros DF, Abu-Raddad LJ (2012) From Individuals to Populations: Immunological and Epidemiological Significance of Co-infection in the Dynamics of HIV. J Clin Cell Immunol S7:003. doi:10.4172/2155-9899.S7-003
Copyright: © 2012 Cuadros DF, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Abstract

Immunological activation in response to an invading organism is essential in order to support an effective host response to an invading pathogen. Paradoxically, it also provides an optimal immunological environment for the viral replication in HIV-positive individuals. Indeed, the life cycle of HIV is closely related to the activation state of its host cells since it depends on host cell surface receptor expression for entry, and also on many cellular pathways and transcription machinery for viral gene expression. In this review, we focused on the overall impact of immune activations generated by co-infection in the viral life cycle at host level leading to increases in HIV replication. Moreover, we discussed the epidemiological implications of this increment on the HIV viral load generated by coinfection. Here, we described how the intimate relationship between HIV and the activation state of the host immune system supporting viral replication results in a synergistic interaction between HIV and concurrent infections such as herpes simplex virus type 2 and malaria. A common denominator of these co-infections is the systemic immune activation resulting in an enhancement of the HIV viral load that ultimately might facilitate the transmission of the virus. There is a need, however, for more population-based studies of concurrent infections, and microbe-microbe interaction at the host level to better understand the impact of co-infections on the natural history of HIV.

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