Gastrointestinal Pathology in Freshwater Fish, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus) Under Almix ExposurePalas Samanta1,2*, Sandipan Pal3, Aloke Kumar Mukherjee4, Tarakeshwar Senapati1, Debraj Kole1 and Apurba Ratan Ghosh1*
- *Corresponding Author:
- Palas Samanta
Division of Environmental Science and Ecological Engineering
Korea University, Anam-dong, Sungbuk-gu
Seoul 02841, Republic of Korea
E-mail: [email protected]
- Apurba Ratan Ghosh
Department of Environmental Science
The University of Burdwan, Golapbag
Burdwan 713104, West Bengal, India
E-mail: [email protected]
Received date: August 23, 2016; Accepted date: August 26, 2016; Published date: August 30, 2016
Citation: Samanta P, Pal S, Mukherjee AK, Senapati T, Kole D, et al. (2016) Gastrointestinal Pathology in Freshwater Fish, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus) Under Almix Exposure. J Environ Anal Toxicol 6:399. doi: 10.4172/2161-0525.1000399
Copyright: © 2016 Samanta P, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Teleostean fish, Oreochromis niloticus was exposed to almix herbicide under field (8 g/acre) and laboratory (66.67 mg/l) conditions for a period of 30 days. Histological and ultramicroanatomical responses were investigated in stomach and intestine. In stomach, light microscopy displayed damaged Columnar Epithelial Cells (CEC) and mucosal folds, thinning of the top plate and fused mucosal folds under laboratory condition but no such significant alterations were observed except mucus secretion in field study. Electron microscopic observation revealed alterations in epithelial contour, damage in microridge structures and excessive mucin mass over epithelial surface under Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) study in both conditions, but the damage was more severe in laboratory study. Transmission Electron Microscopic (TEM) study disclosed severe deformed nucleus and mitochondria, cellular necrosis and severe vacuolation under laboratory study, but comparatively less symptomatic changes were observed in field study. Intestine showed damage in CEC and rupture in intestinal villi in both the conditions under light microscopy, while ultrastructural study showed degenerative changes in CEC and excess mucus secretion in laboratory condition under SEM study. TEM study depicted deformed nucleus and mitochondria, severe vacuolation, and appearance of double layered cell structures in the laboratory condition but no significant alterations were observed under SEM and TEM study in field condition. The present results clearly demonstrated comparatively less pathological lesions under field study than laboratory observations and these responses displayed by the fish species could be considered as bio indicator for evaluating herbicidal toxicosis in aquatic environment.