Gender Differences and Association between Psychological Stress and Alcohol Consumption: A Systematic ReviewLarissa Horta Esper1* and Erikson Felipe Furtado2
- *Corresponding Author:
- Larissa Horta Esper
Hospital das Clínicas da FMRPUSP
Division of Psychiatry
Monte Alegre Ribeirao Preto
E-mail: [email protected]
Received Date January 25, 2013; Accepted Date March 30, 2013; Published Date April 01, 2013
Citation: Esper LH, Furtado EF (2013) Gender Differences and Association between Psychological Stress and Alcohol Consumption: A Systematic Review. J Alcoholism Drug Depend 1:116. doi: 10.4172/2329-6488.1000116
Copyright: © 2013 Esper LH, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
This study aimed to develop a systematic review of literature about psychological stress, alcohol consumption and gender. Search strategies were used in the following databases: Medline and Pubmed. We found 20 studies, most of them published in the last decade, from the United States of America (USA) and with a cross-sectional design. Twelve studies have found associations, either positive as negative, between stressful events and alcohol consumption for both, men and women. Associations were identified exclusively for men in other seven studies. Some studies have also identified that the association between stress and alcohol consumption appears to be moderated by intervening factors such as coping strategies, age, type and number of experienced stressful events, vulnerability and expectations of tension reduction related to alcohol consumption. We conclude that the evidence seems to be stronger for the relationship between stress and alcohol consumption especially among men. Considering the high diversity of methods and sampling approaches it is recommendable that future studies should include the analysis of specific measures of alcohol consumption in order to provide a better estimate of the negative effects of stress and assess the efficacy of preventive interventions for alcohol consumption related to stressful experiences.