Genetic and Epigenetic Regulation of Interferon Regulatory Factor Expression: Implications in Human MalignanciesFragale A, Marsili G and Battistini A*
Department of Infectious, Parasitic and Immune-mediated Diseases, IstitutoSuperiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena, 299, 00161 Rome, Italy
- *Corresponding Author:
- Battistini A
Department of Infectious
Parasitic and Immune-mediated Diseases
Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena
299, 00161 Rome, Italy
E-mail: [email protected]
Received date: September 18, 2013; Accepted date:December 13, 2013; Published date: December 21, 2013
Citation: Fragale A, Marsili G, Battistini A (2013) Genetic and Epigenetic Regulation of Interferon Regulatory Factor Expression: Implications in Human Malignancies. J Genet Syndr Gene Ther 4:205. doi:10.4172/2157-7412.1000205
Copyright: © 2013 Fragale A, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Originally identified as regulators of the type I Interferon system, the nine mammalian members of the Interferon Regulatory Factor (IRF) family are transcriptional regulators with multiple biologic functions, among which the best known are those involved in initiating and regulating many aspect of host immunity, downstream pattern recognition receptors in response to cell injuries. In addition, these versatile proteins also regulate cell differentiation, cell growth and apoptosis in several cell types, and when mutated or disregulated significantly contribute to susceptibility to and progression of several cancers. IRF-1 is the most versatile member of the family, not essential for IFN gene expression and implicated in a variety of cellular functions spanning from the development and function of various immune cells to tumor suppression activity. IRF-3, IRF-7 and Irf-9 are more specifically involved in IFN induction and antiviral responses while IRF-5 is the regulator of inflammatory cytokines expression downstream pattern recognition receptors and IRF-6 is implicated in epithelial differentiation. IRF-8 as IRF-1 is considered a tumor suppressor gene, while IRF-2 and IRF-4 have generally oncogenic activity.
The present review focuses principally on the current knowledge on IRF genetic characteristics, including mutations, polymorphisms and epigenetic regulation that are implicated in oncogenesis.