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ISSN: 2375-4508

Journal of Fertilization: In Vitro - IVF-Worldwide, Reproductive Medicine, Genetics & Stem Cell Biology
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Research Article

Genomic Instability in Embryonic Stem Cell: A Mechanism for Adaptation and Pluripotency Maintenance

Clara I Esteban-Pérez1,2*, Harold H Moreno-Ortiz1,2, Carolina Lucena2, Nancy A Reichert1 and Dwayne A Wise1
1Department of Biological Sciences, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS, 39762, USA
2Reproductive Biomedicine, Colombian Center of Fertility and Sterility, CECOLFES, Bogotá, Colombia, South America, USA
*Corresponding Author : Clara I. Esteban-Pérez
Colombian Center of Fertility and Sterility
CECOLFES, Bogotá, Colombia, South America
Tel: 571-7420505
Fax: 571- 7422235
E-mail: [email protected]
Received December 18, 2014; Accepted February 26, 2015; Published March 05, 2015
Citation: Esteban-Pérez CI, Moreno-Ortiz HH, Lucena C, Reichert NA, Wise DA(2015) Genomic Instability in Embryonic Stem Cell: A Mechanism for Adaptation and Pluripotency Maintenance. J Fertil In Vitro IVF Worldw Reprod Med Genet Stem Cell Biol 3:142. doi:10.4172/2375-4508.1000142
Copyright: © 2015 Esteban-Pérez CI, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

 

Abstract

Embryonic stem (ES) cells have the ability to maintain pluripotency and self-renewal during in vitro maintenance, which is a key to their clinical applications. ES cell quality has been widely evaluated through determination of their specific genetic and epigenetic profiles. The hypothesis of this study is that genetic stability in repetitive sequences located near key genes involved in pluripotency, self-renewal, differentiation, chromatin assembly, and imprinting could be a signal for adaptation of the ES cell in vitro. Instability in specific repetitive sequences is present and increases during ES cell passages. ES cells displayed significant mean frequencies of instability in twelve markers out of 64 related to pluripotency (OCT4, D1S551), early differentiation (G60405, D18S63, and D1S468), chromatin assembly (D22S447, D6S2252, D10S529, and HISTB2), and imprinting (GRB10-promoter, D2S144, and IGF2- promoter). Interestingly, instability was different between H1 and H7 ES cell lines. In summary, these results suggest that instability in tandem repeat sequences located near early embryonic developmental genes is associated with failure of ES cell pluripotency and self-renewal maintenance over consecutive culture passages. These results suggest that instability determination is a potential indicator of gene deregulation and epigenetic modification that involves chromatin modification and imprint establishment during ES cell culture. Finally, instability in specific genes could be a signal that contributes to adaptation of ES cells to in vitro culture or could be the switch that initiates early cell specialization in vitro.

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