Genotoxicity and Cytotoxicity Exerted by Pesticides in Different Biotic Matrices-An Overview of More Than a Decade of Experimental Evaluation
|Larramendy ML1,2, Nikoloff N1,2*, Ruiz de Arcaute C1,2 and Soloneski S1,2|
|1Cátedra de Citología, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Calle 64 Nº 3, B1904AMA La Plata, Argentina|
|2Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Argentina|
|Corresponding Author :||Marcelo L. Larramendy, Ph.D.
Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo
Calle 64 Nro. 3 (esq. 120), B1904AMA La Plata, Argentina
Tel: +54-221-424 9049
E-mail: [email protected]
|Received April 23, 2014; Accepted May 28, 2014; Published June 02, 2014|
|Citation: Larramendy ML, Nikoloff ML, de Arcaute CR, Soloneski S (2014) Genotoxicity and Cytotoxicity Exerted by Pesticides in Different Biotic Matrices-An Overview of More Than a Decade of Experimental Evaluation. J Environ Anal Toxicol 4:225. doi: 10.4172/2161-0525.1000225|
|Copyright: © 2014 Larramendy ML, et al.. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.|
Agrochemicals represent one of the most important sources of environmental pollution. Although attempts to reduce agrochemical use through organic agricultural practices and the use of other technologies to control pests continue, the problem is still unsolved. Recent technological advances in molecular biology and analytical science have allowed the development of rapid, robust, and sensitive diagnostic tests (biomarkers) that can be used to monitor exposure to, and the effects of pollution. One of the major goals of our research laboratory is to evaluate comparatively the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects exerted by several pure agrochemicals and their technical formulations commonly used in Argentina on vertebrate cellsin vitro and in vivo employing several end-points for geno and cytotoxicity. Among them are listed the herbicides dicamba and flurochloridone, the fungicide zineb, the insecticides pirimicarb and imidacloprid. Overall, the results clearly demonstrated that the damage induced by the commercial formulations is in general greater than that produced by the pure pesticides, suggesting the presence of deleterious components in the excipients with either a putative intrinsic toxic effect or with the capacity of exacerbating the toxicity of the pure agrochemicals, or both. Accordingly, the results highlight that: 1) A complete knowledge of the toxic effect/s of the active ingredient is not enough in biomonitoring studies; 2) Pesticide/s toxic effect/s should be evaluated assaying to the commercial formulation available in market; 3) The deleterious effect/s of the excipient/s present within the commercial formulation should not be either discarded nor underestimated, and 4) A single bioassay is not enough to characterize the toxicity of a agrochemical under study.