alexa Genotoxicity of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles using th
ISSN: 2375-4397

Journal of Pollution Effects & Control
Open Access

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Research Article

Genotoxicity of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles using the Mouse Bone Marrow Micronucleus and Sperm Morphology Assays

Bakare AA1*, Udoakang AJ1, Anifowoshe AT2, Fadoju OM1, Ogunsuyi OI1, Alabi OA3, Alimba CG1 and Oyeyemi IT1
1Cell Biology and Genetics Unit, Department of Zoology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
2Department of Zoology, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria
3Department of Biology, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria
*Corresponding Author : Bakare AA
Cell Biology and Genetics Unit
Department of Zoology
University of Ibadan
Ibadan, Nigeria
Tel: +23407032295419
E-mail: [email protected]
Received January 28, 2016; Accepted February 29, 2016; Published March 07, 2016
Citation: Bakare AA, Udoakang AJ, Anifowoshe AT, Fadoju OM, Ogunsuyi OI, et al. (2016) Genotoxicity of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles using the Mouse Bone Marrow Micronucleus and Sperm Morphology Assays. J Pollut Eff Cont 4:156. doi:10.4172/2375-4397.1000156
Copyright: © 2016 Bakare AA, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.




Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) have recently been of public health and scientific concern due to their widespread use in industrial and household applications. However, there is limited information concerning its in vivo cytogenotoxicity. In this study, the cytogenotoxic effects of TiO2-NPs on the somatic tissue using the mouse bone marrow micronucleus (MN) assay and on reproductive tissue using the mouse sperm morphology assay and testicular histopathology were investigated. Five concentrations of 9.38, 18.75, 37.50, 75.00 and 150.00 mg/kg bwt were administered intraperitoneally at 0.5 mL/mouse to mice for five and ten consecutive days in the MN assay; and for five consecutive days in the sperm morphology assay. Double distilled water and cyclophosphamide (20 mg/kg bwt) served as negative and positive controls, respectively. A significant (p<0.05) increase in MN was observed in bone marrow cells of treated mice at 37.50 mg/kg bwt concentration in the 5-day exposure and at all concentrations in the 10-day exposure. The sperm cells examined 5 and 10 weeks from the first day of exposure showed significant increase (p<0.05) in abnormal sperm cells at tested concentrations. Histopathologically, TiO2-NPs disrupted the normal cellular architecture of testicular tissues in exposed mice; as it caused severe lesions such as congestion of the interstitium oedema, vacuolation and necrosis. These suggest that the bone marrow and testicular cells may be potential targets for TiO2-NPs induced DNA damage and cytotoxicity in mice. This is of public health importance considering increasing exposure to TiO2-NPs in consumer products.


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