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ISSN: 2161-0959

Journal of Nephrology & Therapeutics
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Review Article

Glomerulonephritis, Pathogenetic Mechanisms and Therapeutic Options: An Overview

Gaspare Elios Russo1*, Tania Gnerre Musto2, Massimo Testorio2, Alessio Molfino1, Andrea Martinez2, Alessandra Nunzi2, Virgilio DeBono2, Dmytro Grynyshyn2, Annarita D’Angelo2, Georgie Innico2 and S. Lai1

1 Department of Clinical Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy

2 Department of Urologic, Obstetrical and Gynecological Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy

*Corresponding Author:
Gaspare Elios Russo
Department of Clinical Medicine
Sapienza University of Rome, Italy
Tel: (407)996-4282
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: June 11, 2014; Accepted Date: June 28, 2014; Published Date: July 5, 2014

Citation: Russo GE, Musto TG, Testorio M, Molfino A, Martinez A, et al. (2014) Glomerulonephritis, Pathogenetic Mechanisms and Therapeutic Options: An Overview. J Nephrol Ther 4:175 doi:10.4172/2161-0959.1000175

Copyright: © 2014 Russo GE, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Abstract

Introduction: Most forms of human glomerulonephritis (GN) result from immunologic mechanisms that are mediated by the actions of multiple elements of both the innate and adaptive immune systems, thereby resulting in different clinical manifestations. The treatment of immune-mediated kidney disease is based on steroids and immunosuppressive drugs that interfere with the immune processes. These groups of drugs have led to significant benefits, but severe side effects are still frequent. Monoclonal antibodies directed against molecules of inflammation or several cellular components have emerged in clinical practice. Plasmapheresis and new methods to reduce the risks associated with the procedure with standard therapies may be combined. Moreover new therapeutic options have been proposed, as the use of natural anti-inflammatory cytokines or intracellular signaling reducing inflammation. Materials and Methods: We conducted a systematic review on the pathogenetic mechanisms of glomerulonephritis and their therapies.
Results: We analized all RCTs and quasi-RCTs evaluating the current knowledge about pathogenetic mechanisms of glomerulonephritis and related therapy were considered.
Conclusion: The pathogenetic mechanisms of glomerulonephritis are complex and strongly influenced by immunogenetic factors. Several clinical trials to identify the best therapeutic options for glomerulonephritis have been conducted, but currently, although significant advancements over the last 10 years have been obtained, important questions are still unanswered. Moreover, we need to consider many and important side effects that have the main therapies for glomerulonephritis. Therefore the development of a web enabled data base to assist nephrologists for the treatment of patients with glomerulonephritis is strongly suggested.

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