Gross Pathology, Biochemistry and Histopathology of Selected Organs of Camels Suffering from Suspected Monensin Toxicosis in AustraliaAl Jassim RAM1*, Shahsavari A1, Owen H1 and Khamas W2
- *Corresponding Author:
- Al Jassim RAM
The University of Queensland, Gatton
St Lucia QLD-4072, Queensland, Australia
E-mail: [email protected]
Rec date: Feb 12, 2016; Acc date: Apr 06, 2016; Pub date: Apr 08, 2016
Citation: Al Jassim RAM, Shahsavari A, Owen H, Khamas W (2016) Gross Pathology, Biochemistry and Histopathology of Selected Organs of Camels Suffering from Suspected Monensin Toxicosis in Australia. J Veterinar Sci Techno 7:315. doi:10.4172/2157-7579.1000315
Copyright: © 2016 Al Jassim RAM, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
The rumen modifier monensin is widely used in Australia cattle production systems. In addition to its anti-coccidial action monensin improves energy efficiency and nitrogen metabolism in rumen bacteria, and reduces the incidence of metabolic disorders such as acidosis and bloat. While monensin is considered safe for cattle, swine and poultry, it is extremely toxic to horses and incidents of toxicity have also been reported in camels. In this study, we are reporting for the first time monensin toxicosis in a camel herd in South-West Queensland, Australia (~267 km west of Brisbane). The camels were fed a cattle breeder supplements containing 250 mg/kg monensin, formulated to ensure effective concentrations if the supplement is consumed by breeder cattle at levels of 200-500 g/head/d. Blood samples were collected from 13 camels with clinical signs of monensin toxicosis and 12 healthy camels that had no exposure to monensin. Post-mortem examinations were carried out on two camels immediately after death, these animals had marked ascites. Monensin toxicoses resulted in marked decreases in albumin and increases in ALP, LDH and CPK when compared to physiologically normal healthy camels. Other parameters in the blood profile remain within normal limits. Minor to no histopathological changes were observed in the two necropsied camels however death due to rapidly developing congestive heart failure is suspected. Skeletal muscle was not examined histologically. However, the biochemical changes could be consistent with muscle necrosis.