alexa Growth Response and Ionic Regulation in Common Carp (Cy
ISSN: 2161-0525

Journal of Environmental & Analytical Toxicology
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Research Article

Growth Response and Ionic Regulation in Common Carp (Cyprinus Carpio L.) After Chronic Dietary Copper Exposure and Recovery

Ajani EK1 and Akpoilih BU2*
1Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Management, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria
2Department of Animal Science and Fisheries, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria
Corresponding Author : Akpoilih BU
Department of Animal Science and Fisheries
University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt
Rivers State, Nigeria
Tel: +234(0)8134381645
E-mail: [email protected]
Received November 14, 2011; Accepted May 24, 2012; Published May 26, 2012
Citation: Ajani EK, Akpoilih BU (2012) Growth Response and Ionic Regulation in Common Carp (Cyprinus Carpio L.) After Chronic Dietary Copper Exposure and Recovery. J Environ Anal Toxicol 2:143. doi: 10.4172/2161-0525.1000143
Copyright: © 2012 Ajani EK, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
 

Abstract

Effects of exposure of common carp juveniles (Cyprinus carpio L.) to dietary copper and its recovery rate were investigated with the aim of determining the growth and physiological impact. The fish were fed elevated copper diets (1000 mgCukg-1 and 2000 mgCukg-1 as diet 2 and diet 3 respectively) and control diet (5 mgCukg-1, as diet 1) for 42days and were then fed the control diet for a further 21days. After 42days of exposure to elevated copper diets, growth performance examined showed that there was significant increase at (p<0.05) in feed intake, %body weight, weight gain and condition factor by fish fed diet 2 compared to diet 1 and diet 3. There was, however, no difference in specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio, in all treatments (p>0.05). Hepatosomatic index increased significantly in fish fed both elevated diets compared to control diet (p<0.05). Recovery period on normal diet (control) showed no significant effect of copper recovery on fed intake, weight gain, %body weight, specific growth rate and feed conversion ratio in all treatments (p>0.05), but, fish fed diet 2 showed a significant reduction in condition factor compared to other diets (p<0.05). Tissue Na+, Ca2+ K+ were disturbed throughout the experiment with sodium increasing from 257.82 ± 2.50 μmol/g to 388.14 ± 1.32μmol/g and calcium increasing from 499.54 ± 6.81 μmolg-1 to 1025.94 ± 9.16 μmolg-1 reducing gill copper from 11.63 ± 0.37 mgCukg-1to 0.00 ± 0.00mgCukg-1. Intestinal copper decreased from 14.93 ± 0.1 mgCukg-1 to 0.00 ± 0.00 mgCukg-1 as a result of sodium increasing from 130.30 ± 5.12 μmolg-1 to 438.72 ± 2.44 μmolg-1. The reduction in intestinal calcium was sodium dependent as increasing sodium decreased calcium absorption. Increased gill copper of the 1000 mgCukg-1 diet exposed fish during exposure compared to the control was due to copper induced decrease in plasma ion regulatory sodium (Na ATPase activity), which protected fish from direct toxicity effect and could also suggest another pathway other than the common Na/Cu apical channel shared between sodium and copper through which copper binds to fish gill; diet 2 fish showing significant increase at (p<0.05) in haematocrit, red blood cell, white blood cell and neutrophils, and a significant reduction in lymphocyte and mean cell hemoglobin compared to diet 1 and diet 3, (p<0.05). This increase in blood indices is indicative of stress onset to which fish fed diet 2 is subjected. Fish fed diet 3 showed significant reduction in haematocrit, red blood cell, white blood cell and increased lymphocyte (p<0.05) and became anaemic with severe skin discoloration, indicative of a worsening effect of excess dietary copper exposure on the fish. There were not significant differences in moisture content of all tissues during and after copper exposure (p<0.05), although, gills of fish fed diet 2 showed reduction in moisture compared to diet 1 and diet 3-fed fish for both exposure and recovery phases, increasing from 75.3 ± 3.20% to 79.5 ± 6.44% after recovery for 21 days. Gills of fish fed diet 3 also increased post-exposure, indicative of protection of the structural integrity of the gill to prevent hypoxia through oxygen supply from water.

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