Heart Rate as a Therapeutic Target for the Prevention of Cardiovascular DiseaseTaku Inoue*
Center of Residency and Fellowship Program, University Hospital of the Ryukyus, 207 Uehara, Nishihara, 903-0215 Okinawa, Japan
- *Corresponding Author:
- Taku Inoue
Center of Residency and Fellowship Program
University Hospital of the Ryukyus
207 Uehara, Nishihara
903-0215 Okinawa, Japan
E-mail: [email protected]
Received March 26, 2013; Accepted April 28, 2013; Published April 30, 2013
Citation: Inoue T (2013) Heart Rate as a Therapeutic Target for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease. Angiol 1:104. doi:10.4172/2329-9495.1000104
Copyright: © 2013 Inoue T. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Evidence from epidemiologic studies demonstrates that resting Heart Rate (HR) is an independent risk factor for Cardiovascular (CV) event. In addition, recent studies indicate that follow-up HR adds prognostic information over and above baseline HR. Elevated resting HR represents sympathetic over-activation leading to cardiometabolic deterioration and is also associated with subclinical inflammation and target organ damage. In addition, elevated resting HR might modify the local hemodynamic environment and contribute to atherosclerosis formation. A pure HR-lowering drug, Ivabradine, reduces CV event in patients with coronary artery disease and chronic heart failure. These findings indicate that elevated resting HR is not just as an epiphenomenon representing “poor conditioning” but a therapeutic target. The potential role of HR and its modulation should be considered in the future guidance documents.