Hematic Cortisol and Craniofacial Morphology in Children with OSAS
|Alberto Caprioglio1*, Alessandro Ollà2, Franca Marino3, Gian Marco Abbate2, Federico Migliori2, Carlo Mangano4, Marco Cosentino5 and Luana Nosetti6|
|1Associated Professor and Head, Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of Insubria, Italy|
|2DDS, Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of Insubria, Italy|
|3Assistant Professor, Centre of Research in Medical Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of Insubria, Italy|
|4Assistant Professor, Department of Oral Surgery, School of Medicine, University of Insubria, Italy|
|5Associated Professor and Head, Centre of Research in Medical Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of Insubria, Italy|
|6Assistant Professor, Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of Insubria, Italy|
|Corresponding Author :||Alberto Caprioglio
Department of Orthodontics, University of Insubria
Via Piatti, 10 – Varese, Italy
Tel: +39 3474302744
|Received May 25, 2013; Accepted August 26, 2013; Published August 30, 2013|
|Citation: Caprioglio A, Ollà A, Marino F, Abbate GM, Migliori F, et al. (2013) Hematic Cortisol and Craniofacial Morphology in Children with OSAS. J Sleep Disord Ther 2:136 doi:10.4172/2167-0277.1000136|
|Copyright: © 2013 Caprioglio A, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.|
Study objectives: This study wanted to evaluate the correlations between haematic cortisol levels and the craniofacial morphology in children with Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Syndrome (OSAS) in comparison with healthy children.
Design/setting/patients. This is a case-control study. Children referring to the Paediatric Department, University of Insubria, Varese, in the period between 1st and 31st October 2011 for a history of disturbed sleep were evaluated and 28 children, compliant to our criteria, were enrolled in the study.
Interventions: All patients underwent a full-night polysomnographic evaluation. Haematic cortisol levels were measured using a radioimmunoassay technique. An orthodontic evaluation and a cranial lateral cephalometric analysis were performed.
Measurements and results: Haematic cortisol concentration at 2.00 am was found higher in OSAS patients than in controls (p<0.05). An increase in craniomandibular (p<0.05) and intermaxillar (p<0.01) angles indicated a high angle tendency in OSAS with a posterior rotation of the mandible. A retro-position of the mandible (p<0.05), an increased overjet (p<0.01) and a reduction of overbite (p<0.01) were also found.
Conclusions: The altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity and the craniofacial modification found are not enough to state if these conditions are causes rather than consequences of OSAS. Moreover cortisol and sleep fragmentation can cause a reduction of growth hormone secretion so it is possible that the alteration of facial morphology may also have a metabolic cause.