Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infections among Hemodialysis Patients
|Abdulrahman A. Alkhan*|
|Specialist Epidemiologist and Infection Control Director, Dhahran General Hospital, Saudi Arabia|
|Corresponding Author :||Dr. Abdulrahman A. Alkhan
Specialist Epidemiologist and Infection Control Director
Dhahran General Hospital, first street 2 b, Dhahran
Eastern Province 31452, Saudi Arabia
E-mail: [email protected]
|Received December 14, 2014; Accepted January 25, 2015; Published January 29, 2015|
|Citation: Alkhan AA (2015) Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infections among Hemodialysis Patients. Gen Med (Los Angel) 3:165. doi: 10.4172/2327-5146.1000165|
|Copyright: © 2015 Alkhan AA. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.|
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Back ground: HBV is a global health problem which affects about 2 billion people worldwide; it is a chronic disease in 15% of adult population. HCV is also a global health problem which effects about 200 million people worldwide, 3% of world population are living with chronic hepatitis C and about 3-4million people are infected each year, and about 350,000 people die every year due to HCV. Hemodialysis is an artificial way of maintaining hemostasis in the body in the patients with severe renal impairment; it is indicated for the patient with acute renal failure and stage IV chronic renal failure, most of the patients who are undergoing dialysis do that for long period of times and are exposed to the numerous side effects. One of these side effects is infection with hepatitis B and C It was recognized since 1977 the hazards of HBV infection to the hemodialysis patients and since 1990 for HCV. Several studies are done worldwide regarding the incidence, prevalence and risk factors of HBV and HCV infections to the hemodialysis patient. The prevalence of HBV and HCV infections varies greatly from country to country, with 14% of hemodialysis patients in Saudi Arabia being hepatitis B positive and 7% of them being hepatitis C positive. In other Arab countries 23.7% in Sudan, 71% in Kuwait and 41% in Tunisia, Egypt the prevalence of hepatitis C in hemodialysis patient ranges from 52.3 to 82%.
Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of HBV and HCV infections among hemodialysis patients. To determine the risk factors of hepatitis B and C infection in hemodialysis patients. To assess Level of awareness of the patients and health care workers about the HBV and HCV infections.
Conclusion: Among all risk factors were studied, only the long duration of hemodialysis was significantly
associated with HBV and HCV positivity, suggesting that HBV and HCV were nosocomial transmission and the nonadherence to the known universal infection control precautions could be contributing to the high prevalence. Education of staff members and adhere strictly to universal infection control precautions remains a cornerstone for prevention of hepatitis transmission among patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis.
Recommendations: Preventing transmission of HBV and HCV and other blood borne viruses among
hemodialysis patients from both recognized and unrecognized sources of infection requires implementation of a comprehensive infection control program. Introduce training courses in infection control for all health care workers at being of work and annually. Vaccinate all patients and staff against HBV.