High Levels of Diversity in the Phytochemistry, Ploidy and Genetics of the Medicinal Plant Acorus calamus L.
|Mittal N1, Varshney VK2, Song BH1*, and Ginwal HS3*|
|1Department of Biological Sciences, the University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, 28223, NC, USA|
|2Chemistry Division, P.O. New Forest, Forest Research Institute, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, 248006, India|
|3Division of Genetics and Tree Propagation, P.O. IPE Kaulagarh Road, Forest Research Institute, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, 248195, India|
|Corresponding Author's :||
University of North Carolina at Charlotte
Charlotte, NC 28223
E-mail: [email protected]
Forest Research Institute
E-mail: [email protected]
|Received August 05, 2015; Accepted October 13, 2015; Published October 16, 2015|
|Citation: Mittal N, Varshney VK, Song BH, Ginwal HS (2015) High Levels of Diversity in the Phytochemistry, Ploidy and Genetics of the Medicinal Plant Acorus calamus L. Med Aromat Plants S1: 002. doi:10.4172/2167-0412.S1-002|
|Copyright: © 2015 Mittal N, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.|
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Acorus calamus L. is an emergent aquatic macrophyte that is used in several medicines and food supplements. A. calamus ecotypes with low concentrations of β-asarone can be used for medicinal purposes. We investigated 50 populations of this species, representing the entire natural distribution range in Indian Himalayan Region (IHR), to understand natural variations in β-asarone concentration, ploidy level and genetic divergence. Our results showed that: 1) all four cytotypes (diploid, triploid, tetraploid and hexaploid) of A. calamus exist in natural populations in the IHR; 2) the β-asarone concentration is highly correlated with the ploidy level (diploid and hexaploid populations exhibit low β-asarone concentrations, whereas triploids and tetraploids show high β-asarone concentrations); 3) there is a significant correlation between the β-asarone concentration and its distribution along latitudinal and longitudinal ranges, but not ecological factors (mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation); and 4) geographic boundaries play an important role in the population divergence of A. calamus. This study provides a foundation for understanding the genetic basis of natural variation in complex traits of A. calamus and for devising conservation strategies for this medically important plant.