alexa High Levels of Diversity in the Phytochemistry, Ploidy
ISSN: 2167-0412

Medicinal & Aromatic Plants
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Research Article

High Levels of Diversity in the Phytochemistry, Ploidy and Genetics of the Medicinal Plant Acorus calamus L.

Mittal N1Varshney VK2Song BH1*, and Ginwal HS3*
1Department of Biological Sciences, the University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, 28223, NC, USA
2Chemistry Division, P.O. New Forest, Forest Research Institute, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, 248006, India
3Division of Genetics and Tree Propagation, P.O. IPE Kaulagarh Road, Forest Research Institute, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, 248195, India
Corresponding Author's :
Song BH
University of North Carolina at Charlotte
Charlotte, NC 28223
Tel: 704-687-8670 
 
Ginwal HS
Forest Research Institute
Dehradun, Uttarakhand
India 248195
Tel: +91-9412413158 
 
Received August 05, 2015; Accepted October 13, 2015; Published October 16, 2015
Citation: Mittal N, Varshney VK, Song BH, Ginwal HS (2015) High Levels of Diversity in the Phytochemistry, Ploidy and Genetics of the Medicinal Plant Acorus calamus L. Med Aromat Plants S1: 002. doi:10.4172/2167-0412.S1-002
Copyright: © 2015 Mittal N, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Abstract

Acorus calamus L. is an emergent aquatic macrophyte that is used in several medicines and food supplements. A. calamus ecotypes with low concentrations of β-asarone can be used for medicinal purposes. We investigated 50 populations of this species, representing the entire natural distribution range in Indian Himalayan Region (IHR), to understand natural variations in β-asarone concentration, ploidy level and genetic divergence. Our results showed that: 1) all four cytotypes (diploid, triploid, tetraploid and hexaploid) of A. calamus exist in natural populations in the IHR; 2) the β-asarone concentration is highly correlated with the ploidy level (diploid and hexaploid populations exhibit low β-asarone concentrations, whereas triploids and tetraploids show high β-asarone concentrations); 3) there is a significant correlation between the β-asarone concentration and its distribution along latitudinal and longitudinal ranges, but not ecological factors (mean annual temperature and mean annual precipitation); and 4) geographic boundaries play an important role in the population divergence of A. calamus. This study provides a foundation for understanding the genetic basis of natural variation in complex traits of A. calamus and for devising conservation strategies for this medically important plant.

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