alexa HIV Drug Resistance Patterns at the Epicentre of the HIV-1 Epidemic in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa 2003-2013 | OMICS International | Abstract
ISSN 2155-6113

Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research
Open Access

Like us on:

OMICS International organises 3000+ Global Conferenceseries Events every year across USA, Europe & Asia with support from 1000 more scientific Societies and Publishes 700+ Open Access Journals which contains over 50000 eminent personalities, reputed scientists as editorial board members.

Open Access Journals gaining more Readers and Citations
700 Journals and 15,000,000 Readers Each Journal is getting 25,000+ Readers

This Readership is 10 times more when compared to other Subscription Journals (Source: Google Analytics)

Review Article

HIV Drug Resistance Patterns at the Epicentre of the HIV-1 Epidemic in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa 2003-2013

Photini Kiepiela1*, Justen Manasa2*, Mahomed-Yunus Moosa3, Pravi Moodley4, Michelle Gordon5, Urvi M Parikh6, Henry Sunpath7, Tulio de Oliveira2 and Gita Ramjee1

1HIV Prevention Research Unit, Medical Research Council, 123 Jan Hofmeyr Road, Westville 3630, Durban, South Africa

2Africa Centre for Health and Population Studies, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa

3Department of Infectious Diseases, School of Clinical Medicine, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa

4Department of Virology, National Health Laboratory Service / University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa

5HIV Pathogenesis Programme, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa

6Department of Infectious Diseases, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA

7Sinikithemba, McCord Hospital, Durban, South Africa

*Corresponding Author:
Photini Kiepiela
HIV Prevention Research Unit
Medical Research Council
123 Jan Hofmeyr Road
Westville 3630, Durban, South Africa
Tel: +27 312423656
Fax: +27 312423800
E-mail: [email protected]

Justen Manasa
Africa Centre for Health and Population Studies
College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal
Durban, South Africa
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: February 17, 2014; Accepted Date: April 15, 2014; Published Date: April 25, 2014

Citation: Kiepiela P, Manasa J, Moosa MY, Moodley P, Gordon M, et al. (2014) HIV Drug Resistance Patterns at the Epicentre of the HIV-1 Epidemic in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa 2003-2013. J AIDS Clin Res 5:299. doi:10.4172/2155-6113.1000299

Copyright: © 2014 Kiepiela P, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


South Africa has the highest number of individuals with HIV-1 infection worldwide with the epicentre of the epidemic in the province of KwaZulu-Natal (KZN). Currently South Africa has the largest antiretroviral treatment (ART) programme with KZN and Gauteng provinces accounting for 56% of all patients on ART. In order to understand transmission dynamics and temporal trends in drug resistance, we performed a comprehensive literature review of primary and acquired drug resistance in adults and children in KZN over a ten year period, 2003-2013. Transmitted drug resistance (TDR) to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) in adults is increasing to moderate levels (5-15%). Acquired drug resistance to first line drug regimens in adults was associated with at least one mutation to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) or NNRTIs or both, with M184V and K103N the most common mutations. Prevalence of thymidine analogues (TAMs) was low to moderate. There was no published data on acquired drug resistance to second line agents. Children failing first line drug regimens harboured drug resistance mutations to NRTI (M184V and TAMs), NNRTI (V106M and K103N) and protease inhibitors (PIs) (V82A). Concerns have been raised about the high levels of the K65R mutation associated with tenofovir regimens in adults and children. Continued vigilance is needed for ART failure in both adults and children, so as not to compromise second line treatment options. Drug resistance genotyping is now cost effective and should be considered for inclusion in regional surveillance studies and during routine care.


Peer Reviewed Journals
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2018-19
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri & Aquaculture Journals

Dr. Krish

[email protected]

+1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Biochemistry Journals

Datta A


[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals


porn sex

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

Gaziantep Escort

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9040

Clinical Journals

Datta A


[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037


James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Food & Nutrition Journals

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science

Andrea Jason

mp3 indir

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics & Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Materials Science Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Nursing & Health Care Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Medical Journals


Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T


[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

Ann Jose

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

© 2008- 2018 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version