HIV Lipodystrophy more Prevalent in Women than Men in Tamil Nadu, India
Saramma Mini Jacob*, Annie Phoebe Kalyanasundaram, Elango Ramesh Kumar, Anitha Durairaj, Hemalatha Ramachandran and Sivakumar MR
Department of Experimental Medicine, The Tamilnadu Dr MGR Medical University, Chennai, Tamilnadu, INDIA
- *Corresponding Author:
- Saramma Mini Jacob, M.D
Department of Experimental Medicine
The Tamilnadu Dr MGR Medical University No.69
Anna Salai, Guindy, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India
E-mail: [email protected]
Received Date: January 25, 2012; Accepted Date: March 05, 2012; Published Date: March 05, 2012
Citation: Jacob SM, Kalyanasunderam AP, Ramesh Kumar E, Anitha D, Hemalatha R (2012) HIV Lipodystrophy more Prevalent in Women than Men in Tamil Nadu, India. J AIDS Clinic Res 3:143. doi:10.4172/2155-6113.1000143
Copyright: © 2012 Jacob SM, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Background: As antiretroviral therapy (ART) becomes more available to the HIV infected population in rural areas in India, it is important to determine the prevalence of its long term complications. Therefore, it was proposed to find out the prevalence of lipodystrophy in patients receiving ART and compare the gender dif ferences.
Material and methods: In this cross sectional study, consenting HIV-infected patients on ART visiting Namakkal District Head Quarters Hospital, Tamil Nadu, India, were recruited. They were on generic first-line fixed dose combinations of ART. Sociodemographics, anthropometric measurements, ART regimens and duration of treatment were recorded. Patients’ self-perception of lipodystrophy was obtained using standardized questionnaires and clinically confirmed by the physician. An overnight fasting blood was drawn to determine serum lipids levels. Statistical analysis included Chi-square test, student t-test and Mann Whitney U test.
Results: There were 145 HIV-infected subjects (46.9% males, 53.1% females) receiving ART for a mean 29.4 months. Mean age of the males were 38.18 ± 8.85 and for the females, it was 33.34 ± 6.20. The mean body mass index (BMI) for the males was 21.95 ± 3.94 kg/m 2 while for the females it was 21.14 ± 3.54 kg/m 2 . The overall prevalence of lipodystrophy was 60.69%; 22.72% with lipohypertrophy, 51.14% with lipoatrophy, and 22.72% with mixed pattern. Women had a higher prevalence of lipodystrophy than men (p=0.004). Lipoatrophy was higher in females (p=0.015) and mixed pattern (p=0.015). There was a higher prevalence of facial atrophy, fat loss in arms, fat loss in legs and fat loss in buttocks among women compared to men. Women with lipodystrophy had higher BMI, CD4 counts, VLDL cholesterol and triglycerides.
Conclusion: Women had significantly higher rates of generalized lipodystrophy and particularly lipoatrophy when compared with men taking first-line antiretroviral regimen. Compared with women without lipodystrophy, those with lipodystrophy had lipid abnormalities.