HYDROCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND CLASSIFICATION OF GROUNDWATER REGIME FOR SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE IN LUDHIANA DISTRICT, PUNJAB, INDIA.
|Sharda Shakha.1, Brar, K,Karanjot2. and3Madhuri, S.Rishi
|Received: 16 June 2014 Accepted: 27 June 2014|
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The global population is going to reach a 9 billion mark by 2050 and food production will have to increase 70 percent to meet the demands of a booming population. Today more than 1 billion people around the world depend upon farming for their livelihoods. The water quality is also one of the major factors for the sustainable agriculture. Agriculture must be environmentally, socially and economically sustainable so that they can feed the world. Ludhiana was the first district where the green revolution made its appearance right from the beginning. Rapid industrialization and urbanization lead to depletion of water resources which ultimately cause pollution and contamination through sewage, industrial wastes, domestic wastes and agricultural runoff. The quality of water was made by various parameters like pH, EC, TDS,TH and major cations like (Ca2+,Mg2+,Na+,K+) and anions like (HCO3 -, Cl-,SO4 2-,PO4 3-and NO3 -) as per BIS standards. The results show that bicarbonate is the dominate anion and calcium along with magnesium is the dominant cation. EC, %Na, SAR, RSC, PI and KI are also analyzed for irrigation purposes. Classification of hydrochemical facies of ground water reveals majority of water belongs to Ca-Mg-HCO3 - water types i.e. water has temporary hardness.