Gingival hyperplasia may be described as an increase in the size of the gingiva. Idiopathic gingival hyperplasia may be observed as fibrotic hyperplasia of gingival tissue, which leads to esthetic and functional problems. Factors that lead to gingival hyperplasia include inflammatory causes, hormone-related causes, leukemia, vitamin C deficiency, non-specific causes, neoplasia and drugs. The drugs that may be responsible include anti-convulsive drugs, immune-suppressive drugs, anti-epileptic drugs and calcium channel blockers. Gingival hyperplasia with unknown causes, not included in any groups, may also be seen.