alexa Imaging Neuroinflammation and#195;and#162;and#194;and#8364;and#194;and#8220; from Bench to Bedside | OMICS International | Abstract
ISSN: 2155-9899

Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology
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Review Article

Imaging Neuroinflammation – from Bench to Bedside

Benjamin Pulli and John W Chen*
Center for Systems Biology and Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 185 Cambridge Street, Boston, MA 02114, USA
Corresponding Author : John W Chen, M.D., Ph.D
Center for Systems Biology and Department of Radiology
Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School
185 Cambridge Street, Richard B. Simches Research Center
Boston, MA 02114, USA
Tel: 617-643-7071
E-mail: [email protected]
Received May 23, 2014; Accepted June 23, 2014; Published June 30, 2014
Citation: Pulli B, Chen JW (2014) Imaging Neuroinflammation – from Bench to Bedside. J Clin Cell Immunol 5:226. doi: 10.4172/2155-9899.1000226
Copyright: © 2014 Pulli B, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Abstract

Neuroinflammation plays a central role in a variety of neurological diseases, including stroke, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, and malignant CNS neoplasms, among many other. Different cell types and molecular mediators participate in a cascade of events in the brain that is ultimately aimed at control, regeneration and repair, but leads to damage of brain tissue under pathological conditions. Non-invasive molecular imaging of key players in the inflammation cascade holds promise for identification and quantification of the disease process before it is too late for effective therapeutic intervention. In this review, we focus on molecular imaging techniques that target inflammatory cells and molecules that are of interest in neuroinflammation, especially those with high translational potential. Over the past decade, a plethora of molecular imaging agents have been developed and tested in animal models of (neuro)inflammation, and a few have been translated from bench to bedside. The most promising imaging techniques to visualize neuroinflammation include MRI, positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and optical imaging methods. These techniques enable us to image adhesion molecules to visualize endothelial cell activation, assess leukocyte functions such as oxidative stress, granule release, and phagocytosis, and label a variety of inflammatory cells for cell tracking experiments. In addition, several cell types and their activation can be specifically targeted in vivo, and consequences of neuroinflammation such as neuronal death and demyelination can be quantified. As we continue to make progress in utilizing molecular imaging technology to study and understand neuroinflammation, increasing efforts and investment should be made to bring more of these novel imaging agents from the “bench to bedside.”

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