Immune Involvement in Autism Spectrum Disorder as a Basis for Animal ModelsElaine Y. Hsiao* and Paul H. Patterson
Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
- *Corresponding Author:
- Elaine Y. Hsiao
Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology
Pasadena, CA 91125, USA
E-mail: [email protected]
Received date: August 31, 2012; Accepted date: September 26, 2012; Published date: October 03, 2012
Citation: Hsiao EY, Patterson PH (2012) Immune Involvement in Autism Spectrum Disorder as a Basis for Animal Models. Autism S1:003. doi:10.4172/2165-7890.S1-003
Copyright: © 2012 Hsiao EY, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Several of the environmental stimuli suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of ASD involve altered immune responses during gestation. In this review, we discuss maternal immune activation as a primary risk factor for ASD, with an emphasis on recent findings from animal models of prenatal immune challenges. We further address the presence of autoantibodies as an additional immune-related autism risk factor, drawing upon work done in rodent and monkey models. We then explore the intersection between genetic and environmental susceptibility, with a focus on gene-environment interactions and immune involvement, in genetic risk factors for autism. Finally, we provide emerging evidence for the role of immune dysregulation in the pathogenesis of ASD.