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ISSN: 2155-9899

Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology
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Research Article

Immune Modulators of HIV Infection: The Role of Reactive Oxygen Species

Siham Salmen* and Lisbeth Berrueta*
Institute of Clinical Immunology, University of Los Andes, Merida, Venezuela
Corresponding Authors : Siham Salmen
Instituto de Inmunología Clínica
Universidad de Los Andes
Edificio Louis Pasteur, Merida, Venezula
Tel: (58) 274-2403188
Fax: (58) 274-2403187
E-mail: [email protected]
  Lisbeth Berrueta
Instituto de Inmunología Clínica
Universidad de Los Andes
Edificio Louis Pasteur, Merida, Venezuela
Tel: (58) 274-2403226
Fax: (58) 74-403226
E-mail: [email protected]
Received March 17, 2012; Accepted May 29, 2012; Published June 05, 2012
Citation: Salmen S, Berrueta L (2012) Immune Modulators of HIV Infection: The Role of Reactive Oxygen Species. J Clin Cell Immunol 3:121. doi:10.4172/2155-9899.1000121
Copyright: © 2012 Salmen S, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Abstract

A continue loss of CD4+ T lymphocytes, immune response dysfunction and chronic immune activation (IA) are hallmarks of untreated chronic HIV-1 infection. ROS and the subsequent oxidative stress have been connected with chronic activation of the immune system, viral replication, immune dysfunction, programmed cell death, and neurological damage, all considered to be major contributing issues in HIV-1 diseases progression. It has been demonstrated that HAART partially restore the antioxidant capacity by suppressing HIV, and it has been suggested that antioxidant therapy in combination with HAART could protect the blood brain barrier from oxidative stressinduced damage. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain how HIV could modulate ROS generation and several HIV proteins have been shown to modulate ROS production. This review is intended to highlight the role played by ROS as modulators of the immune system during the course of HIV infection, which could explain its contribution to disease progression, opening the scope to new strategies for drug design and future treatment.

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