Immunomodulation of Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, by Nigella sativa and Bacillus subtilis
- *Corresponding Author:
- Elkamel AA
Department of Animal Medicine
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine
Assiut University, Assiut , Egypt
E-mail: [email protected]
Received Date: July 02, 2012; Accepted Date: August 16, 2012; Published Date: August 26, 2012
Citation: Elkamel AA, Mosaad GM (2012) Immunomodulation of Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, by Nigella sativa and Bacillus subtilis. J Aquacult Res Dev 3:147. doi:10.4172/2155-9546.1000147
Copyright: © 2012 Elkamel AA, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
The aim of this study is to investigate the modulation of the immune system of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus,by the black cumin seeds, Nigella sativa, or Bacillus subtilis PB6 (CloSTAT) as feed additives. Four diet regimes, a basic (control), CloSTAT, nigella, or combination of the black cumin seeds and CloSTAT were formulated and used to feed fish for 30 successive days. Half of the fish were used to investigate some of the immune parameters as serum globulins, white blood cell counts, and phagocytic activities and phagocytic indices. The other half of fish was subjected to infection challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila to investigate the disease resistance ability of the fish received the feeding additives. Results showed that the serum globulins have significantly increased in fish received the combination diet, while white blood cells have significantly increased in fish fed with nigella or combination ration.Phagocytic activities and indices of the fish fed the combination ration were significantly higher than those of the control groups. The mortality rate of fish fed with nigella or combination ration and challenged with A. hydrophila were significantly lower than those that received the basic diet. The current study clearly demonstrated that black cumin,CloSTAT or both can be used to modulate the immune system of Nile tilapia to the favour of resistance to diseases.