alexa Impaired Histatin-5 Levels and Salivary Antimicrobial Activity against C.albicans in HIV Infected Individuals | OMICS International | Abstract
ISSN 2155-6113

Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research
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Research Article

Impaired Histatin-5 Levels and Salivary Antimicrobial Activity against C.albicans in HIV Infected Individuals

Shariq A Khan1, Paul L Fidel Jr2, Awdah AlThunayyan1, Sharon Varlotta1, Timothy F Meiller1,4# and Mary Ann Jabra-Rizk1,3*#

1Department of Oncology and Diagnostic Sciences, Dental School, University of Maryland, Baltimore, USA

2Department of Oral and Craniofacial Biology, Center of Excellence in Oral and Craniofacial Biology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, School of Dentistry, New Orleans, LA, USA

3Department of Microbiology and Immunology and Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore, USA

4The Marlene and Stewart Greenebaum Cancer Center, University of Maryland Medical System, USA

# Both authors contributed equally to the study

*Corresponding Author:
Mary Ann Jabra-Rizk
University of Maryland
Baltimore, 650 W Baltimore Street
7 North Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
Tel: 410-706-0508
Fax: 410-706-0519
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: January 22, 2013; Accepted Date: February 28, 2013; Published Date: March 05, 2013

Citation: Khan SA, Fidel Jr PL, Thunayyan AAl, Varlotta S, Meiller TF, et al. (2013) Impaired Histatin-5 Levels and Salivary Antimicrobial Activity against C. albicans in HIV Infected Individuals. J AIDS Clin Res 4:193. doi:10.4172/2155-6113.1000193

Copyright: © 2013 Khan SA, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


HIV-infected individuals constitute a population highly susceptible to opportunistic infections, particularly oral candidiasis caused by the most pathogenic human fungal species Candida albicans. Host-produced salivary antimicrobial peptides are considered to be an important part of the host innate immune system involved in protection of the oral cavity against colonization and infection by microbial species. Histatin-5 (Hst-5) specifically has exhibited potent anti-candidal properties in vitro. However, its importance in protecting the oral mucosa against candidal colonization and importantly, its contribution to the observed enhanced susceptibility of HIV-infected individuals to candidiasis has not been previously investigated. To that end, a novel immunoassay was used to demonstrate significant decrease in salivary Hst-5 levels in HIV+ individuals concomitant with enhanced candidal prevalence. Further, saliva’s anti-candidal potency was found to be proportional to Hst-5 concentration and significantly compromised in HIV+ subjects compared to controls. The key role for Hst-5 was further confirmed upon exposure to the Hst-5-specific antibody where saliva’s initial killing activity was substantially compromised. Combined, these findings identify Hst-5 as a key anti-candidal salivary component and demonstrate its decreased levels in HIV infection providing new insights into oral Innate immune defense mechanisms and the enhanced susceptibility of HIV+ individuals to oral candidiasis


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