Implementation of Ketogenic Diet Therapy in Refractory Epilepsies
Received Date: Jul 05, 2016 / Accepted Date: Jul 29, 2016 / Published Date: Aug 02, 2016
The Ketogenic Diet (KD) has been used in treatment of epilepsy in mainland China since 2004. Clinical indications of KD include: Glucose Transporter Type 1 (GLUT-1) deficiency, Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Deficiency (PDHD, myoclonus-astatic epilepsy (Doose syndrome), tuberous sclerosis complicated with or without epilepsy, Rett syndrome, Dravet syndrome, infantile spasms, and Landau-Kleffner syndrome, Lafora disease, and super-refractory status epilepticus. The contraindications of KD include: Inborn error of lipid metabolism, porphyria, and patients who are unable to cooperate with the KD. There should be standardized clinical consultation and evaluation before starting KD treatment; and special attention should be paid to selection and preparation of food, and to indication of age and geographic area etc. During the KD treatment, the transition time from ordinary diet to KD often takes 1-2 weeks; and a final 2: 1-4: 1 ketogenic diet ratio will normally produce ketosis of clinical therapeutic effect. The KD could be combined with anticonvulsant treatment. A qualified ketogenic diet therapy means: (1) Proper nutrition and growth with normal nutrition biomarkers; (2) Tasty foods: patients are willing to accept the therapeutic diet; (3) Ideal state of ketosis: urine ketone remains above (+++), blood ketone at about 4.0 mmol/L, blood sugar is controlled at 4.0 mmol/L, ratio of blood sugar/blood ketone is about 1: 1-2: 1; (4) Reasonable balanced food composition, defecate daily and naturally without constipation; (5) No remarkable complication(s). It is recommended that KD could be tried at least for three months continuously. Good responders should maintain the KD therapy for 2 yrs. or so. It often needs to take 3-6 months to return back to a regular diet. KD therapy should be monitored with close follow-ups and assessments. Our extensive experience has confirmed that it is safe in clinical practice.
Keywords: Ketogenic diet; Refractory epilepsy; Complications; Qualified ketogenic diet
Citation: Liao J, Xiong L (2016) Experience of Application of Ketogenic Diet Therapy in Refractory Epilepsies. Epilepsy J 2:111. Doi: 10.4172/2472-0895.1000111
Copyright: © 2016 Liao J, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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