alexa Implications of Lymphocyte Anergy to Glycolipids in Multiple Sclerosis (MS): iNKT Cells May Mediate the MS Infectious Trigger | OMICS International | Abstract
ISSN: 2155-9899

Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology
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Review Article

Implications of Lymphocyte Anergy to Glycolipids in Multiple Sclerosis (MS): iNKT Cells May Mediate the MS Infectious Trigger

Edward L Hogan1,2,3*, Maria Podbielska1,4 and Joan O’Keeffe5
1Georgia Regents University, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Department of Neurology, 1120 15th Street, Augusta, 30912-2620 GA, USA
2National University of Ireland Galway, Department of Microbiology, University Road, Galway, Ireland
3Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Neurosciences, 173 Ashley Avenue, Charleston, SC 29401, USA
4Ludwik Hirszfeld Institute of Immunology & Experimental Therapy, Polish Academy of Sciences, Laboratory of Signaling Proteins, R. Weigla Street 12, 53-114 Wrocław,
Poland
5Department of Life and Physical Sciences, School of Science, Galway-Mayo Institute of Technology, Galway, Ireland
Corresponding Author : Edward L. Hogan
Medical University of South Carolina
Department of Neurosciences
173 Ashley Avenue, Charleston, SC 29401, USA
E-mail: [email protected]
Received April 25, 2013; Accepted May 21, 2013; Published May 27, 2013
Citation: Hogan EL, Podbielska M, O’Keeffe J (2013) Implications of Lymphocyte Anergy to Glycolipids in Multiple Sclerosis (MS): iNKT Cells May Mediate the MS Infectious Trigger. J Clin Cell Immunol 4:144. doi:10.4172/2155-9899.1000144
Copyright: © 2013 Hogan EL, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Abstract

Immunogenic lipids may play key roles in host defenses against infection and in generating autoimmune inflammation and organ-specific damage. In multiple sclerosis (MS) there are unequivocal autoimmune features and vulnerability to aggravation or induction by microbial or viral infection. We have found glycolipid-driven anergy of circulating lymphocytes in MS indicating that this immune response is affected in MS and the robust effects of iNKT activation with potent cellular and cytokine activities emphasizes its potential importance. Diverse glycolipids including the endogenous myelin acetylated-galactosylceramides (AcGalCer) can drive activation that could be critical to the inflammatory demyelination in the central nervous system and clinical consequences. The iNKT cells and their invariant or iTCR (Vα24Jα18Vβ11) constitute an innate defense−a discrete immune arm that is separate from peptide-driven acquired immune responses. This offers new possibilities for insight including a likelihood that the pattern recognition of exogenous microbial and myelin immunogens can overlap and cross-react especially in an inflammatory milieu.

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