Importance of Fish Antimicrobial Peptides for Aquaculture and Biomedicine
Department for Innovation in Biological, Agro-food and Forest systems (DIBAF), University of Tuscia, Largo dell’Università s.n.c., I-01100 Viterbo, Italy.
- *Corresponding Author:
- Dr. Francesco Buonocore
Department for Innovation in Biological
Agro-food and Forest systems (DIBAF)
University of Tuscia
Largo dell’Università s.n.c.
I-01100 Viterbo, Italy
Received Date: September 02, 2011; Accepted Date: October 18, 2011; Published Date: October 21, 2011
Citation: Buonocore F (2011) Importance of Fish Antimicrobial Peptides for Aquaculture and Biomedicine. J Aquac Res Development 2:105e. doi:10.4172/2155-9546.1000105e
Copyright: © 2011 Buonocore F. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Fishes rely heavily on their innate immune defences for initial protection against pathogen agents invasion, both during the first stages of their lives, when the adaptive immunity is still not active, and when they are completely developed, as the adaptive immune system display scarce memory and short-lived secondary responses . The antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are one of the major components of the innate defences in protecting from such infections. In mammals, AMPs typically have broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, they can often kill multiple pathogens that include bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses. A large number of AMPs have been isolated from a wide number of fish species during last years, among which pleurocidin from winter flounder (Pleuronectes americanus) , cathelicidins from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) , defensins from zebrafish (Danio rerio) , piscidins from hybrid striped bass (white bass, Morone chrysops, female, x striped bass, Morone saxatilis, male) , dicentracin from sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) , and hepcidin from channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) , epinecidin from the grouper (Epinephelus coiodes)  (for a review see ). The activity of fish AMPs have been tested not only against the more common fish bacterial pathogens [8,10] but either against other pathogens like nervous necrosis virus . Moreover, some AMPs have shown dual functional aspects, like hepcidins that have been indicated to be involved in iron regulation . Piscidins have been demonstrated to be present both in mast cells and professional phagocytic granulocytes  and have been detected via bug blot, Western blot, ELISA and/or immunochemistry in gill extract of different important fish species.