Improving Treatment Outcomes for Tuberculosis
Department of Microbiology, National Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases Research Institute, Warsaw, Poland
- *Corresponding Author:
- Zwolska Z
Department of Microbiology
National Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases Research Institute
26 Płocka, 01-138 Warsaw, Poland
E-mail: [email protected]
Received Date: May 22, 2017; Accepted Date: June 12, 2017; Published Date: June 22, 2017
Citation: Zwolska Z (2017) Improving Treatment Outcomes for Tuberculosis. J Bioequiv Availab 9:442-446. doi: 10.4172/jbb.1000341
Copyright: © 2017 Zwolska Z. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Major issues are currently associated with Tuberculosis (TB) treatment, particularly in patients infected by Multi-drug Resistant Tuberculosis/Extensively Drug Resistant Tuberculosis (mdr-TB/XDR-TB) resistant mycobacteria. A new threat recently reported in various Asian countries is totally Drug Resistant Tuberculosis (TDR). The presence of such Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains is disturbing also for the reasons they spread beyond the continent of Asia.
The currently recommended tuberculosis treatment regimen is not well received by patients due to its minimum six-month, complexity, and common adverse events. The prevalence of MDR-TB and XDR-TB are inversely correlated with the quality of TB control and the proper use of second-line anti-TB drugs. Moreover, cost is extraordinary high. Since the mid-1960s only two new anti-TB drugs, bedaquiline and delamandine, have come to market; however, these drugs are not available in many regions and are limited to severely resistant cases. Currently, new derivatives such as spectinoamide are of interest in tuberculosis treatment. In vitro results and animal studies are used to aid in drug development.
There is an urgent need for treatment improvement through enhancement of existing agents. Namely, individual differences in absorption and excretion of the primary anti-TB drugs, isoniazid and rifampin, require consideration. Recently, several studies attempted to evaluate the effect of anti-TB drug concentrations on treatment outcomes. Authors showed that 50-76% of the tested patients had low concentrations of INH (Isoniazid) and RMP (Rifampin). Because Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TMD) was performed in small numbers of selected patients with comorbidities or slow treatment responses, the studies did not clearly demonstrate the effect of low drug levels on treatment outcomes. Future coordinated research is required.
New molecular tests allow for research using supervised, individualized treatment of tuberculosis. In addition, effective tuberculosis outcomes require coordinated action multiple parameters for patient detection through implementation of rapid microbiological and clinical tests as well as reliable drug resistant tests of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This leads to a break in the chain of transmission, and prevents the spread of disease in community. Education plays in important role for patients and families concerning the causes of disease and prevention methods. Additionally, medical staff should also themselves improve the level of diseases knowledge. Behaviour changes in tuberculosis infection control among medical personnel is also required. Keep in mind that one of the reasons for the relapse of tuberculosis is its disregard.